On Statistical Fluctuations in Collective Flows

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2023-02-01

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In relativistic heavy-ion collisions, event-by-event fluctuations are known to have non-trivial implications. Even though the probability distribution is geometrically isotropic for the initial conditions, the anisotropic (Formula presented.) still differs from zero owing to the statistical fluctuations in the energy profile. On the other hand, the flow harmonics extracted from the hadron spectrum using the multi-particle correlators are inevitably subjected to non-vanishing variance due to the finite number of hadrons emitted in individual events. As one aims to extract information on the fluctuations in the initial conditions via flow harmonics and their fluctuations, finite multiplicity may play a role in interfering with such an effort. In this study, we explore the properties and impacts of such fluctuations in the initial and final states, which both notably appear to be statistical ones originating from the finite number of quanta of the underlying system. We elaborate on the properties of the initial-state eccentricities for the smooth and event-by-event fluctuating initial conditions and their distinct impacts on the resulting flow harmonics. Numerical simulations are performed. The possible implications of the present study are also addressed.

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Universe, v. 9, n. 2, 2023.

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