Cytocompatibility and Synergy of EGCG and Cationic Peptides Against Bacteria Related to Endodontic Infections, in Planktonic and Biofilm Conditions

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This study evaluated the cytocompatibility and antimicrobial/antibiofilm effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) associated with peptide LL-37 and its analogue KR-12-a5 against oral pathogens. The effect of the compounds on metabolism of fibroblasts was evaluated by methyltetrazolium assays. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was evaluated on Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomyces israelii, and Fusobacterium nucleatum under planktonic conditions, on single- and dual-species biofilms and E. faecalis biofilms in dentinal tubules and analyzed by bacterial counts and confocal microscopy. Data were statistically analyzed considering p < 0.05. EGCG and peptide combinations were not toxic to fibroblasts. KR-12-a5 showed synergistic or addictive effects with EGCG and LL-37 against all bacteria tested. However, EGCG associated with KR-12-a5 demonstrated the highest bactericidal activity on all bacteria tested, at lower concentrations. In single-species biofilms, EGCG + KR-12-a5 eliminated S. mutans and A. israelii and reduced E. faecalis and F. nucleatum counts around 5 log CFU/mL. EGCG + KR-12-a5 reduced E. faecalis (-3.93 log CFU/mL) and eliminated S. mutans in dual-species biofilms. No growth of E. faecalis and significant reduction in A. israelii (−6.24 log CFU/mL) and F. nucleatum (−4.62 log CFU/mL) counts were detected in dual-species biofilms. The combination of EGCG and KR-12-a5 led to 88% of E. faecalis dead cells inside dentin tubules. The association of EGCG and KR-12-a5 was cytocompatible and promoted synergistic effect against biofilms of bacteria associated with endodontic infections.




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Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins.

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