Mechanical behavior of titanium and zirconia abutments at the implant-abutment interface: A systematic review

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2022-01-01

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Statement of problem: Zirconia has become popular for dental implant abutments in the esthetic zone but can damage the implant connection interface. Studies have been conducted to compare zirconia abutments with conventional titanium abutments; however, a consensus or systematic review is lacking. Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the performance of abutments made of zirconia and titanium in relation to wear and misfit at the implant-abutment interface. Material and methods: Electronic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science) were independently searched by 2 researchers for relevant studies published up to June 2021. The population, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) question was “Do zirconia abutments cause greater wear at the implant-abutment interface than titanium abutments under occlusal forces?” Eligible studies included in vitro studies that evaluated changes in the surface of external and/or internal connections and single and/or multiple, screwed and/or cemented prostheses rehabilitated with titanium and zirconia abutments submitted to mechanical cycling. Results: Nine studies were included for qualitative analysis. A total of 172 specimens were analyzed, 86 zirconia and 86 titanium abutments. In terms of wear on the implant connection surface, zirconia abutments caused more severe wear, more scratches, and more rounding of the hexagonal angles at the implant connection interface than titanium abutments. In terms of misfit at the connection interface, zirconia abutments showed greater misfit than titanium abutments. Conclusions: Zirconia abutments produce more wear at the titanium implant connection interface, titanium abutments showed better fit to the implant connection interface, and the fit can be influenced by the abutment manufacturing method.

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Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry.

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