Depth of single-leg squat influences the two-dimensional analysis of knee, hip, and pelvis frontal plane motion in pain-free women

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2022-10-01

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Background: The single-leg squat (SLS) is often used to measure two-dimensional frontal plane motion; however, there is a variability in the SLS depth across studies. Research question: Are knee abduction (KABD), hip adduction (HADD), pelvic drop (PD), and lateral trunk flexion (LTF) angles different at greater knee flexion angles during a SLS? Methods: Twenty pain-free females (age=22.3 ± 1.1 years, height=1.68 ± 0.06 m, mass=63.1 ± 11.7 kg) participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants performed five SLSs to the lowest depth comfortable, keeping pace with a metronome, while being video recorded in the frontal and sagittal planes. The middle three SLSs were used for analysis. KABD, HADD, PD, and LTF angles were measured at 30º, 45º, 60º, 75º, and 90º of knee flexion using extracted images. Linear mixed model analyses were used to compare across knee flexion angles and clinical significance was determined by comparing angle changes to the standard error of measurement (SEM). Results: We observed significant differences for KABD (F=14.69, p < .001), HADD (F=46.29, p < .001), and PD (F=27.27, p < .001) among knee flexion angles. Post-hoc analyses revealed that KABD significantly increased at every increase of knee flexion angle (p ≤ .05, d=0.54–1.95), as did HADD (p ≤ .05, d=0.64–3.85) and PD (p ≤ .05, d=0.61–3.03). Changes in KABD, HADD, and PD often exceeded SEM for all changes in knee flexion angles. Significance: Knee, hip, and pelvic frontal plane motions are influenced by knee flexion angles during 2D analysis of a SLS task. Our results highlight the importance of standardizing SLS depth during research and clinical practice to ensure appropriate comparisons across measurements.

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Gait and Posture, v. 98, p. 279-282.

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