Low bone mineral density is associated with breast cancer in postmenopausal women: a case–control study

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Ferreira Poloni, P. [UNESP]
Vespoli, H. De Luca [UNESP]
Almeida-Filho, B. de Sousa [UNESP]
Bueloni-Dias, F. [UNESP]
Nahas-Neto, J. [UNESP]
Nahas, E. Aguiar Petri [UNESP]

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Objective: To evaluate risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors compared with postmenopausal women without breast cancer (controls). Method: In this study, 112 breast cancer survivors were compared to 224 women (controls). Inclusion criteria were amenorrhea ≥12 months, age 45–75 years, treated for breast cancer, and metastasis-free for at least 5 years. The control group consisted of women without breast cancer, matched by age and menopause status (in a proportion of 1: 2 as sample calculation). The risk factors for low BMD (osteopenia/osteoporosis) were assessed by interview. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar spine (L1–L4) and femoral neck. Logistic regression models (odds ratio, OR) were used to identify factors associated with low BMD. Results: The mean (standard deviation) age of breast cancer survivors was 61.3 (9.7) years, with a mean follow-up of 10.2 (3.9) years. These women had a higher incidence of osteopenia (45.1%) and osteoporosis (22.3%) in the femoral neck than controls (39.3% and 9.0%, respectively) (p = 0.0005). Lumbar spine BMD did not differ between groups (p = 0.332). Univariate analysis adjusted for age and time since menopause revealed that chemotherapy (OR 6.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.57–9.77) was associated with a higher risk of low BMD. Contrarily, regular physical exercise (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.06–0.98) and a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.02–0.37) reduced the risk among breast cancer survivors. Conclusion: Postmenopausal breast cancer survivors had a higher incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in the femoral neck than women without breast cancer. A history of chemotherapy was a risk factor for low BMD, whereas regular physical activity and high body mass index reduced the risk among breast cancer survivors.



bone mineral density, breast cancer, Menopause, osteoporosis

Como citar

Climacteric, v. 20, n. 5, p. 491-497, 2017.