Quadratic gravity in (2+1)D with a topological Chern-Simons term

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Accioly, A.
Mukai, H.
Azeredo, A.
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Iop Publishing Ltd
Three-dimensional quadratic gravity, unlike general relativity in (2+1)D, is dynamically nontrivial and has a well behaved nonrelativistic potential. Here we analyse the changes that occur when a topological Chem-Simons term is added to this theory. It is found that the harmless massive scalar mode of the latter gives rise to a troublesome massive spin-0 ghost, while the massive spin-2 ghost is replaced by two massive physical particles both of spin 2. We also found that light deflection does not have the 'wrong sign' such as in the framework of three-dimensional quadratic gravity.
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Journal of Physics A-mathematical and General. Bristol: Iop Publishing Ltd, v. 34, n. 36, p. 7213-7219, 2001.