Sn-polymetallic greisen-type deposits associated with late-stage rapakivi granites, Brazil: fluid inclusion and stable isotope characteristics

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Bettencourt, J. S.
Leite, W. B.
Goraieb, C. L.
Sparrenberger, I
Bello, RMS
Payolla, B. L.

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Elsevier B.V.


Tin-polymetallic greisen-type deposits in the Itu Rapakivi Province and Rondonia Tin Province, Brazil are associated with late-stage rapakivi fluorine-rich peraluminous alkali-feldspar granites. These granites contain topaz and/or muscovite or zinnwaldite and have geochemical characteristics comparable to the low-P sub-type topaz-bearing granites. Stockworks and veins are common in Oriente Novo (Rondonia Tin Province) and Correas (Itu Rapakivi Province) deposits, but in the Santa Barbara deposit (Rondonia Tin Province) a preserved cupola with associated bed-like greisen is predominant. The contrasting mineralization styles reflect different depths of formation, spatial relationship to tin granites, and different wall rock/fluid proportions. The deposits contain a similar rare-metal suite that includes Sri (+/-W, +/-Ta, +/-Nb), and base-metal suite (Zn-Cu-Pb) is present only in Correas deposit. The early fluid inclusions of the Correas and Oriente Novo deposits are (1) low to moderate-salinity (0-19 wt.% NaCl eq.) CO2-bearing aqueous fluids homogenizing at 245-450 degreesC, and (2) aqueous solutions with low CO2, low to moderate salinity (0-14 wt.% NaCl eq.), which homogenize between 100 and 340 T. In the Santa Barbara deposit, the early inclusions are represented by (1) low-salinity (5-12 wt.% NaCl eq.) aqueous fluids with variable CO2 contents, homogenizing at 340 to 390 T, and (2) low-salinity (0-3 wt.% NaCl eq.) aqueous fluid inclusions, which homogenize at 320380 degreesC. Cassiterite, wolframite, columbite-tantalite, scheelite, and sulfide assemblages accompany these fluids. The late fluid in the Oriente Novo and Correas deposit was a low-salinity (0-6 wt.% NaCl eq.) CO2-free aqueous solution, which homogenizes at (100-260 degreesC) and characterizes the sulfide fluorite-sericite association in the Correas deposit. The late fluid in the Santa Barbara deposit has lower salinity (0-3 wt.% NaCl eq.) and characterizes the late-barren-quartz, muscovite and kaolinite veins. Oxygen isotope thermometry coupled with fluid inclusion data suggest hydrothermal activity at 240-450 degreesC, and 1,0-2.6 kbar fluid pressure at Correas and Oriente Novo. The hydrogen isotope composition of breccia-greisen, stockwork, and vein fluids (delta(18)O quartz from 9.9parts per thousand to 10.9parts per thousand, deltaDH(2)O from 4.13parts per thousand to 6.95parts per thousand) is consistent with a fluid that was in equilibrium with granite at temperatures from 450 to 240 degreesC. In the Santa Barbara deposit, the inferred temperatures for quartz-pods and bed-like greisens are much higher (570 and 500 degreesC, respectively), and that for the cassiterite-quartz-veins is 415 degreesC. The oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of greisen and quartz-pods fluids (delta(18)O(qtz-H2O)=5.5-6.1parts per thousand) indicate that the fluid equilibrated with the albite granite, consistent with a magmatic origin. The values for mica (delta(18)O(mica-H2O)=33-9.8parts per thousand) suggest mixing with meteoric water. Late muscovite veins (delta(18)O(qtz-H2O)=-6.4parts per thousand) and late quartz (delta(18)O(mica-H2O)=-3.8parts per thousand) indicate involvement of a meteoric fluid. Overall, the stable isotope and fluid inclusion data imply three fluid types: (1) an early orthomagmatic fluid, which equilibrated with granite; (2) a mixed orthomagmatic-meteoric fluid; and (3) a late hydrothermal meteoric fluid. The first two were responsible for cassiterite, wolframite, and minor coluChange in the redox conditions related to mixing-of magmatic and meteoric fluids favored important sulfide mineralization in the Correas deposit. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



rapakivi granite, greisen deposits, fluid inclusions, stable isotopes, Brazil

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Lithos. Amsterdam: Elsevier B.V., v. 80, n. 1-4, p. 363-386, 2005.