PM2.5 and PM10: The influence of sugarcane burning on potential cancer risk

dc.contributor.authorSilva, Flavio S. [UNESP]
dc.contributor.authorCristale, Joyce [UNESP]
dc.contributor.authorAndre, Paulo A.
dc.contributor.authorSaldiva, Paulo H. N.
dc.contributor.authorMarchi, Mary Rosa Rodrigues de [UNESP]
dc.contributor.institutionUniversidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
dc.contributor.institutionUniversidade de São Paulo (USP)
dc.date.accessioned2014-05-20T14:19:06Z
dc.date.available2014-05-20T14:19:06Z
dc.date.issued2010-12-01
dc.description.abstractIn Brazil, sugarcane fields are often burned to facilitate manual harvesting, and this burning causes environmental pollution from the large amounts of soot released into the atmosphere. This material contains numerous organic compounds such as PAHs. In this study, the concentrations of PAHs in two particulate-matter fractions (PM2.5 and PM10) in the city of Araraquara (SE Brazil, with around 200,000 inhabitants and surrounded by sugarcane plantations) were determined during the sugarcane harvest (HV) and non-harvest (NHV) seasons in 2008 and 2009. The sampling strategy included four campaigns, with 60 samples in the NHV season and 220 samples in the HV season. The PM2.5 and PM10 fractions were collected using a dichotomous sampler (10 L min(-1), 24 h) with Teflon (TM) filters. The filter sets were extracted (ultrasonic bath with hexane/acetone (1:1 v/v)) and analyzed by HPLC/Fluorescence. The median concentration for total PAHs (PM2.5 in 2009) was 0.99 ng m(-3) (NHV) and 3.3 ng m(-3) (HV). In the HV season, the total concentration of carcinogenic PAHs (benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene) was 5 times higher than in the NHV season. B(a)P median concentrations were 0.017 ng m(-3) and 0.12 ng m(-3) for the NHV and HV seasons, respectively. The potential cancer risk associated with exposure through inhalation of these compounds was estimated based on the benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence (BaPeq), where the overall toxicity of a PAR mixture is defined by the concentration of each compound multiplied by its relative toxic equivalence factor (TEF). BaPeq median (2008 and 2009 years) ranged between 0.65 and 1.0 ng m(-3) and 1.2-1.4 ng m(-3) for the NHV and HV seasons, respectively. Considering that the maximum permissible BaPeq in ambient air is 1 ng m(-3), related to the increased carcinogenic risk, our data suggest that the level of human exposure to PAHs in cities surrounded by sugarcane crops where the burning process is used is cause for concern. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.en
dc.description.affiliationUniv Estadual Paulista, Inst Chem, Dept Analyt Chem, UNESP, BR-14800900 Araraquara, SP, Brazil
dc.description.affiliationUniv São Paulo, Dept Pathol, Fac Med, BR-01246903 São Paulo, Brazil
dc.description.affiliationUnespUniv Estadual Paulista, Inst Chem, Dept Analyt Chem, UNESP, BR-14800900 Araraquara, SP, Brazil
dc.format.extent5133-5138
dc.identifierhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.09.001
dc.identifier.citationAtmospheric Environment. Oxford: Pergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd, v. 44, n. 39, p. 5133-5138, 2010.
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.09.001
dc.identifier.issn1352-2310
dc.identifier.lattes2543372149131902
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11449/25756
dc.identifier.wosWOS:000284661600010
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherPergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd
dc.relation.ispartofAtmospheric Environment
dc.relation.ispartofjcr3.708
dc.relation.ispartofsjr1,523
dc.rights.accessRightsAcesso restrito
dc.sourceWeb of Science
dc.subjectPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)en
dc.subjectbenzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalenceen
dc.subjectBiomass burningen
dc.subjectCluster analysisen
dc.subjectPrincipal components analysisen
dc.titlePM2.5 and PM10: The influence of sugarcane burning on potential cancer risken
dc.typeArtigo
dcterms.licensehttp://www.elsevier.com/about/open-access/open-access-policies/article-posting-policy
dcterms.rightsHolderPergamon-Elsevier B.V. Ltd
unesp.author.lattes2543372149131902
unesp.campusUniversidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Instituto de Química, Araraquarapt

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