A Critical Review of Dental Lithia-Based Glass–Ceramics

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Zhang, Y.
Vardhaman, S.
Rodrigues, C. S. [UNESP]
Lawn, B. R.

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The purpose of this article is to review current understanding of lithia-based glass–ceramics and to identify future research needs for this class of dental materials in relation to novel compositions and fabrication methods. With rapid advances in material development and digital technology, time efficiency of dental workflow and fit accuracy of ceramic restorations are ever improving. Lithia-based glass–ceramics are at the forefront of this advance—new variants with more efficient fabrication routes are continually being introduced into the marketplace. Base glass composition, crystallization heat treatment, nucleant and coloration additives, and property gradation are some pertinent variables. The trend in fabrication is to move from CAD/CAM grinding of partially crystallized glass–ceramics to fully crystallized materials, thereby circumventing the need for postmachining firing altogether. In these endeavors, a better understanding of mechanical properties and evolving shaping technologies, such as ductile grinding, is paramount. Additive manufacturing and 3-dimensional printing methodologies offer a promising alternative to current CAD/CAM subtractive manufacturing routes. Challenges to the implementation of new technologies in efficient development and production of high-quality dental glass–ceramic prostheses are addressed.



additive manufacturing, clinical performance, ductile grinding, glass composition, graded structures, mechanical properties

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Journal of Dental Research, v. 102, n. 3, p. 245-253, 2023.