Gallic Acid as a Non-Selective Inhibitor of α/β-Hydrolase Fold Enzymes Involved in the Inflammatory Process: The Two Sides of the Same Coin

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Toyama, Marcos Hikari [UNESP]
Rogero, Airam [UNESP]
de Moraes, Laila Lucyane Ferreira [UNESP]
Fernandes, Gustavo Antônio [UNESP]
Costa, Caroline Ramos da Cruz [UNESP]
Belchor, Mariana Novo [UNESP]
De Carli, Agatha Manzi [UNESP]
de Oliveira, Marcos Antônio [UNESP]

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(1) Background: Gallic acid (GA) has been characterized as an effective anti-inflammatory, antivenom, and promising drug for therapeutic use. (2/3) Methods and Results: GA was identified from ethanolic extract of fresh pitanga (Eugenia uniflora) leaves, which was identified using commercial GA. Commercial GA neutralized the enzymatic activity of secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) by inhibiting the active site and inducing changes in the secondary structure of the enzyme. Pharmacological edema assays showed that GA strongly decreased edema when the compound was previously incubated with sPLA2. However, prior treatment of GA (30 min before) significantly increased the edema and myotoxicity induced by sPLA2. The molecular docking results of GA with platelet-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and acetylcholinesterase reveal that this compound was able to interact with the active site of both molecules, inhibiting the hydrolysis of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and acetylcholine (ACh). (4) Conclusion: GA has a great potential application; however, our results show that this compound can also induce adverse effects in previously treated animals. Additionally, the increased edema and myotoxicity observed experimentally in GA-treated animals may be due to the inhibition of PAF-AH and Acetylcholinesterase.



Edema, Gallic acid, Myotoxic effect, Phospholipase A2, Snake venom

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Pharmaceutics, v. 14, n. 2, 2022.