Model for determining flow diameter and economic velocity in water elevating systems

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Zocoler, Joao L.
Baggio Filho, Francisco C.
Oliveira, Luis A. F.
Hernandez, Fernando B. T.

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Hindawi Publishing Corporation


The purpose of this paper was to develop a model for calculating the economical flow diameter and velocity, by obtaining the economical diameter, using Swamee's friction factor equation, by minimizing the total annual cost. The application of the model to a regular supply condition showed that the diameter of the actual condition, 250 mm, compared with the diameter calculated by the mode, at the same tariff as that applied to the property ( ground), 284.1 mm, involved the necessity to generate, transmit, and distribute extra electrical energy, due to the higher load loss caused by the original diameter, approximately 30800 kWh/year. This means that in one year, the consumer would spend R$2,804.00 more on pumping cost alone.



Como citar

Mathematical Problems In Engineering. New York: Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 17 p., 2006.