Density functional theory study on the structural and electronic properties of low index rutile surfaces for TiO2/SnO2/TiO2 and SnO2/TiO2/SnO2 composite systems

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2008-09-25

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Amer Chemical Soc

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The present study is concerned with the structural and electronic properties of the TiO2/SnO2/TiO2 and SnO2/TiO2/SnO2 composite systems. Periodic quantum mechanical method with density functional theory at the B3LYP level has been carried out. Relaxed surface energies, structural characteristics and electronic properties of the (I 10), (0 10), (10 1) and (00) low-index rutile surfaces for TiO2/SnO2/TiO2 and SnO2/TiO2/SnO2 models are studied. For, comparison purposes, the bare rutile TiO2 and SnO2 structures are also analyzed and compared with previous theoretical and experimental data. The calculated surface energy for both rutile TiO2 and SnO2 surfaces follows the sequence (110) < (010) < (101) < (001) and the energy increases as (010) < (101) < (110) < (001) and (010) approximate to (110) < (101) < (001) for SnO2/TiO2/SnO2 and TiO2/SnO2/TiO2 composite systems, respectively. SnO2/TiO2/SnO2 presents larger values of surface energy than the individual SnO2 and TiO2 metal oxides and the TiO2/SnO2/TiO2 system renders surface energy values of the same order that the TiO2 and lower than the SnO2. An analysis of the electronic structure of the TiO2/SnO2/TiO2 and SnO2/TiO2/SnO2 systems shows that the main characteristics of the upper part of the valence bands for all the studied surfaces are dominated by the external layers, i.e., by the TiO2 and the SnO2, respectively, and the topology of the lower part of the conduction bands looks like the core layers. There is an energy stabilization of both valence band top and conduction band bottom for (110) and (010) surfaces of the SnO2/TiO2/SnO2 composite system in relation to their core TiO2, whereas an opposite trend is found for the same surfaces of the TiO2/SnO2/TiO2 composite system in relation to the bare SnO2. The present theoretical results may explain the growth of TiO2@SnO2 bimorph composite nanotape.

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Journal of Physical Chemistry A. Washington: Amer Chemical Soc, v. 112, n. 38, p. 8943-8952, 2008.

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