Isoflurane and propofol contribute to increasing the antioxidant status of patients during minor elective surgery: a randomized clinical study
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Isoflurane is a volatile halogenated anesthetic used especially for anesthesia maintenance whereas propofol is a venous anesthetic utilized for anesthesia induction and maintenance, and reportedly an antioxidant. However, there are still controversies related to isoflurane-induced oxidative stress and it remains unanswered whether the antioxidant effects occur in patients under propofol anesthesia.Taking into account the importance of better understanding the role of anesthetics on oxidative stress in anesthetized patients, the present study was designed to evaluate general anesthesia maintained with isoflurane or propofol on antioxidant status in patients who underwent minimally invasive surgeries.We conducted a prospective randomized trial in 30 adult patients without comorbidities who underwent elective minor surgery (septoplasty) lasting at least 2 h admitted to a Brazilian tertiary hospital.The patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups, according to anesthesia maintenance (isoflurane, n = 15 or propofol, n = 15). Peripheral blood samples were drawn before anesthesia (baseline) and 2-h after anesthesia induction.The primary outcomes were to investigate the effect of either isoflurane or propofol anesthesia on aqueous plasma oxidizability and total antioxidant performance (TAP) by fluorometry as well as several individual antioxidants by high-performance liquid chromatography. As secondary outcome, oxidized genetic damage (7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine, known as 8-oxo-Gua) was investigated by the comet assay.Both anesthesia techniques (isoflurane or propofol) for a 2-h period resulted in a significant decrease of plasma α-tocopherol, but not other antioxidants including uric acid, carotenoids, and retinol (P > 0.05). Propofol, in contrast to isoflurane anesthesia, significantly increased (P < 0.001) anti-inflammatory/antioxidant plasma γ-tocopherol concentration in patients. Both anesthesia types significantly enhanced hydrophilic antioxidant capacity and TAP, with no significant difference between them, and 8-oxo-Gua remained unchanged during anesthesia in both groups. In addition, both anesthetics showed antioxidant capacity in vitro.This study shows that anesthesia maintained with either propofol or isoflurane increase both hydrophilic and total antioxidant capacity in plasma, but only propofol anesthesia increases plasma γ-tocopherol concentration. Additionally, both types of anesthetics do not lead to oxidative DNA damage in patients without comorbidities undergoing minimally invasive surgery.