Response of pulp cells to resin infiltration of enamel white spot-like lesions
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Objectives: To investigate the trans-enamel and trans-dentinal biological effects of treating enamel white spot-like lesions (EWSLs) with resin infiltration components (RICs) on odontoblast-like cells (MDPC-23) and human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Methods: EWSLs were induced in 60 enamel/dentin discs (4.0 ± 0.2 mm thick) using S. mutans. The discs were adapted into artificial pulp chambers and MDPC-23 were seeded on the dentin surface. The components of a resin infiltration system (Icon) were applied individually or in combination on the enamel surface as following (n = 10/treatment): Etch, Infiltrant, Etch+Infiltrant, or Etch+Dry+Infiltrant. The application of water or hydrogen peroxide served as negative and positive controls, respectively. After 72 h, MDPC-23 viability was evaluated. The extracts were exposed for 72 h to pre-cultured MDPC-23 and HDPCs in 96-well plates to evaluate cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), mineralized nodule formation (MN), and the expression of inflammatory cytokines (ICs) and mineralization-related genes (MRs). Data were analyzed by ANOVA complemented with Tukey or Games-Howell post-hocs (α = 5%). Results: Cell viability, ALP activity, and MN formation were significantly reduced in response to the RICs, presenting intermediate values compared to positive and negative controls. Likewise, ICs were upregulated, whereas MRs were downregulated. Among the RICs, the Etch component caused the most notorious detrimental effects. Significance: Resin infiltration of EWSLs negatively affected the metabolism of pulp cells in vitro. Therefore, even though resin infiltration is a micro-invasive therapy for non-cavitated caries in enamel, it should be closely followed up seen that components may diffuse and unbalance pulp homeostasis.
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