Brain monoaminergic neurons and ventilatory control in vertebrates
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Monoamines (noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (AD), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) are key neurotransmitters that are implicated in multiple physiological and pathological brain mechanisms, including control of respiration. The monoaminergic system is known to be widely distributed in the animal kingdom, which indicates a considerable degree of phylogenetic conservation of this system amongst vertebrates. Substantial progress has been made in uncovering the participation of the brain monoamines in the breathing regulation of mammals, since they are involved in the maturation of the respiratory network as well as in the modulation of its intrinsic and synaptic properties. on the other hand, for the non-mammalian vertebrates, most of the knowledge of central monoaminergic modulation in respiratory control, which is actually very little, has emerged from studies using anuran amphibians. This article reviews the available data on the role of brain monoaminergic systems in the control of ventilation in terrestrial vertebrates. Emphasis is given to the comparative aspects of the brain noradrenergic, adrenergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic neuronal groups in breathing regulation, after first briefly considering the distribution of monoaminergic neurons in the vertebrate brain. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.