Three-dimensional finite element analysis of MHD duct flow by the penalty function formulation
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A numerical scheme based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) is presented to calculate the full solution of a three-dimensional steady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow with moderately high Hartmann numbers and interaction parameters. An incompressible, viscous and electrically conducting liquid-metal is considered. Assuming a low magnetic Reynolds number, the solution method solves the coupled Navier-Stokes and Maxwell's equations through the use of a penalty function method. Results are presented for Hartmann numbers in the range 10(2)-10(3).