Alterações imunitárias na cirrose hepática alcoólica+.
Alternative titleImmunologic changes in alcoholic liver cirrhosis
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The alcoholic liver cirrhosis usually causes overall immunological changes which might be attributed to either the hepatic disease itself, to ethanol action and/or to malnourishment of the patient. These immune abnormalities comprise both cellular and humoral immunity, consisting of increased immunoglobulin levels, depressed late-skin response to antigens, lowered proliferative response of lymphocytes to mitogens, lower plasma levels of complement proteins (C3 and C4) and by either lower (IL2 and gamma IF) or increased (IL1, TNF, IL6 and IL8) cytokine levels. Parallel to the systemic immune suppression found in most patients, there is also a concomitant local, genetically based, immune stimulation at the liver level which leads to hepatic self-aggression. The systemic immune-suppression could be responsible for periodical infections or neoplasia found in these patients. The possible factors for the immune exhaustion are: a) lower hepatic clearance of toxins and/or bacteria; b) lower hepatic synthesis of complement components; c) cytokines (IL2 and gamma IF) deficiencies, and d) deficiencies of nutrients related to the antioxidant and/or immune defense mechanisms. The immune stimulation of the liver self aggression is characterized by the preferential migration of cytotoxic T cell and neutrophils to the liver, following stimulatory factors such as Mallory bodies, acetaldehyde and/or antibodies. Moreover, the local increase of cytokines (IL1, TNF, IL6 and IL8) levels would be liable for the local phagocyte chemotaxy (IL8) or part of liver injury (TNF) eased by the lower antioxidant defense of the cirrhotic liver.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)