Risk factors for low birth weight in Botucatu city, SP state, Brazil: A study conducted in the public health system from 2004 to 2008
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Background: Low birth weight (LBW), defined as birth weight less than 2500 g, has a complex etiology and may be a result of premature interruption of pregnancy or intrauterine growth restriction. The objective of this study was to provide information on determinants of LBW and contribute to the understanding of the problem in Brazil. Methods. A case-control study was conducted in Botucatu city, SP state, Brazil. The study population consisted of 2 groups with 860 newborns in each group as follows: low weight newborns (LWNB) and a control group (weight ≤ 2500 g). Secondary data from 2004 to 2008 were collected using the Live Birth Certificate (LBC) and records from medical charts of pregnant women in Basic Health Units (BHU) and in the Public University Hospital (UH). Variables were as follows: maternal socio-demographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth conditions including quality of prenatal care according to 3 criteria. They were based on parameters established by the Ministry of Health (MH), one of them, the modified Kessner Index. The multivariable analysis by logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between variables and LBW. Results: According to the analysis, the factors associated with LBW were as follows: prematurity (OR = 56.98, 95% CI 29.52-109.95), twin pregnancy (OR = 20.00, 95% CI 6.25-100.00), maternal smoking (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.33-3.45), maternal malnourishment (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.08-5.00), maternal obesity (OR = 2.30, 95% IC 1.18-4.48), weight gain during pregnancy less than 5 kg (OR = 2.63, 95% CI 1.35-5.00) and weight gain during pregnancy more than 15 kg (OR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.16-4.41). Adequacy of prenatal care visits adjusted to gestational age was less frequent in the LBW group than in the control group (68.7% vs. 80.5%, x 2 p < 0.001). According to the modified Kessner Index, 64.4% of prenatal visits in the LWNB group were adequate. Conclusion: LWNB are a quite heterogeneous group of infants concerning their determinants and prevention actions against LBW and the follow-up of these infants have also been very complex. Therefore, improvement in the quality of care provided should be given priority through concrete actions for prevention of LBW. © 2012 Fonseca et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.