Evaluation of interface characterization and adhesion of glass ceramics to commercially pure titanium and gold alloy after thermal- and mechanical-loading

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Ccahuana Vasqueza, Vanessa Zulema [UNESP]
Ozcan, Mutlu
Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu [UNESP]

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Elsevier B.V.


Objectives. This study evaluated the effect of thermal- and mechanical-cycling on the shear bond strength of three low-fusing glassy matrix dental ceramics to commercial pure titanium (cpTi) when compared to conventional feldspathic ceramic fused to gold alloy.Methods. Metallic frameworks (diameter: 5 min, thickness: 4 mm) (N = 96, n = 12 per group) were cast in cpTi and gold alloy, airborne particle abraded with 150 mu m aluminum oxide. Low-fusing glassy matrix ceramics and a conventional feldspathic ceramic were fired onto the alloys (thickness: 4mm). Four experimental groups were formed; Gr1 (control group): Vita Omega 900-Au-Pd alloy; Gr2: Ticeram-cpTi; Gr3: Super Porcelain Ti-22-cpTi and G4: Vita Titankeramik-cpTi. While half of the specimens from each ceramic-metal combination were randomly tested without aging (water storage at 37 C for 24h only), the other half were first thermocycled (6000 cycles, between 5 and 55 C, dwell time: 13 s) and then mechanically loaded (20,000 cycles under SON load, immersion in distilled water at 37 C). The ceramic-alloy interfaces were loaded under shear in a universal test machine (cross-head speed: 0.5 mm/min) until failure occur-red. Failure types were noted and the interfaces of the representative fractured specimens from each group were examined with stereo microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). in an additional study (N = 16, n = 2 per group), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was performed from ceramic-alloy interfaces. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test.Results. Both ceramic-metal combinations (p < 0.001) and aging conditions (p < 0,001) significantly affected the mean bond strength values. Thermal- and mechanical-cycling decreased the bond strength (MPa) results significantly for Gr3 (33.4 +/- 4.2) and Gr4 (32.1 +/- 4.8) when compared to the non-aged groups (42.9 +/- 8.9, 42.4 +/- 5.2, respectively). Gr1 was not affected significantly from aging conditions (61.3 +/- 8.4 for control, 60.7 +/- 13.7 after aging) (p > 0.05). Stereomicroscope images showed exclusively adhesive failure types at the opaque ceramic-cpTi interfacial zone with no presence of ceramic on the substrate surface but with a visible dark titanium oxide layer in Groups 2-4 except Gr1 where remnants of bonder ceramic was visible. EDS analysis from the interfacial zone for cpTi-ceramic groups showed predominantly 34.5-85.1% O(2) followed by 1.1-36.7% Aland 0-36.3% Si except for Super Porcelain Ti-22 where a small quantity of Ba (1.4-8.3%), S (0.7%) and Sn (35.3%) was found. In the Au-Pd alloy-ceramic interface, 56.4-69.9% O(2) followed by 15.6-26.2% Si, 3.9-10.9% K, 2.8-6% Na, 4.4-9.6% Al and 0-0.04% Mg was observed.Significance. After thermal-cycling for 6000 times and mechanical-cycling for 20,000 times, Triceram-cpTi combination presented the least decrease among other ceramic-alloy combinations when compared to the mean bond strength results with Au-Pd alloy-Vita Omega 900 combination. (c) 2008 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



Ceramic, EDS, Gold alloy, Mechanical aging, Shear bond strength, Thermal aging, Titanium

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Dental Materials. Oxford: Elsevier B.V., v. 25, n. 2, p. 221-231, 2009.