Effects of orchiectomy and testosterone replacement therapy on redox balance and salivary gland function in Wistar rats

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dos Santos, Damáris Raissa [UNESP]
Fiais, Gabriela Alice [UNESP]
de Oliveira Passos, Arthur [UNESP]
dos Santos, Luis Fernando Gadioli [UNESP]
Kayahara, Giseli Mitsuy [UNESP]
Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo [UNESP]
Matsushita, Doris Hissako [UNESP]
Antoniali, Cristina [UNESP]
Nakamune, Ana Cláudia de Melo Stevanato [UNESP]
Dornelles, Rita Cássia Menegati [UNESP]

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The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of orchiectomy (ORX) and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on redox balance and function of salivary glands. Forty-five young adult male Wistar rats (3 months old) were either castrated bilaterally or underwent fictitious surgery (SHAM) and were subsequently distributed into 3 groups: SHAM, ORX, and TRT (castrated rats that received an intramuscular injection of testosterone cypionate 10 mg/kg/weekly). All treatments started 4 weeks after castration (4 months old) and lasted 4 weeks (5 months old). At the end of treatment, pilocarpine-induced salivary secretion was collected to analyze salivary flow rate and biochemistry composition, and the parotid (PG) and submandibular (SMG) glands were sampled for redox balance markers and histomorphometric analyses. ORX increased salivary flow rate, calcium, phosphate, and chloride, and decreased total protein and amylase, while not changing the salivary buffer capacity, pH, sodium, and potassium compared to SHAM. TRT restored all salivary parameters to SHAM values. ORX increased oxidative lipid and protein damage, total antioxidant capacity, and uric acid in both salivary glands compared to SHAM. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were greater only in the SMG of the ORX group in relation to SHAM. ORX decreased duct and acini area, while increasing connective tissue in the PG. On the other hand, ORX reduced duct area and increased acini area in the SMG compared to SHAM. TRT restored the redox balance and histomorphometric parameters to close to SHAM values in both salivary glands. Orchiectomy-induced salivary gland dysfunction was characterized by an increase in the salivary flow rate and changes in the secretion of total protein, amylase, and electrolytes, which are key factors, considered important for maintaining oral health status. To sum up, orchiectomy impaired the redox balance of the salivary glands. Our results also showed that TRT reversed the oxidative damage, morphological alterations, and salivary gland dysfunction induced by orchiectomy. Therefore, these results suggest an important action of testosterone on the redox balance and secretory ability of salivary glands.



Orchiectomy, Oxidative stress, Saliva, Salivary glands, Testosterone cypionate

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Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 218.