Collapse of the world's largest herbivores

dc.contributor.authorRipple, William J.
dc.contributor.authorNewsome, Thomas M.
dc.contributor.authorWolf, Christopher
dc.contributor.authorDirzo, Rodolfo
dc.contributor.authorEveratt, Kristoffer T.
dc.contributor.authorGaletti, Mauro [UNESP]
dc.contributor.authorHayward, Matt W.
dc.contributor.authorKerley, Graham I.H.
dc.contributor.authorLevi, Taal
dc.contributor.authorLindsey, Peter A.
dc.contributor.authorMacdonald, David W.
dc.contributor.authorMalhi, Yadvinder
dc.contributor.authorPainter, Luke E.
dc.contributor.authorSandom, Christopher J.
dc.contributor.authorTerborgh, John
dc.contributor.authorVan Valkenburgh, Blaire
dc.contributor.institutionOregon State University
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of Sydney
dc.contributor.institutionStanford University
dc.contributor.institutionNelson Mandela Metropolitan University
dc.contributor.institutionUniversidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp)
dc.contributor.institutionThoday Building
dc.contributor.institutionLion Program
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of Pretoria
dc.contributor.institutionTubney House
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of Oxford
dc.contributor.institutionDuke University
dc.contributor.institutionLos Angeles
dc.description.abstractLarge wild herbivores are crucial to ecosystems and human societies. We highlight the 74 largest terrestrial herbivore species on Earth (body mass≥ 100 kg), the threats they face, their important and often overlooked ecosystem effects, and the conservation efforts needed to save them and their predators from extinction. Large herbivores are generally facing dramatic population declines and range contractions, such that ∼60% are threatened with extinction. Nearly all threatened species are in developing countries, where major threats include hunting, land-use change, and resource depression by livestock. Loss of large herbivores can have cascading effects on other species including large carnivores, scavengers, mesoherbivores, small mammals, and ecological processes involving vegetation, hydrology, nutrient cycling, and fire regimes. The rate of large herbivore decline suggests that ever-larger swaths of the world will soon lack many of the vital ecological services these animals provide, resulting in enormous ecological and social costs.en
dc.description.affiliationTrophic Cascades Program Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society Oregon State University
dc.description.affiliationDesert Ecology Research Group School of Biological Sciences University of Sydney
dc.description.affiliationDepartment of Biology Stanford University
dc.description.affiliationCentre for African Conservation Ecology Department of Zoology Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
dc.description.affiliationDepartamento de Ecologia Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), C.P. 199
dc.description.affiliationCollege of Natural Sciences Bangor University Thoday Building, Deiniol Road
dc.description.affiliationDepartment of Fisheries and Wildlife Oregon State University
dc.description.affiliationLion Program, Panthera, 8 West 40th Street
dc.description.affiliationMammal Research Institute Department of Zoology and Entomology University of Pretoria
dc.description.affiliationWildlife Conservation Research Unit Department of Zoology University of Oxford Recanati-Kaplan Centre Tubney House
dc.description.affiliationEnvironmental Change Institute School of Geography and the Environment University of Oxford
dc.description.affiliationNicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences Duke University, P.O. Box 90381
dc.description.affiliationDepartment of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of California Los Angeles
dc.description.affiliationUnespDepartamento de Ecologia Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), C.P. 199
dc.description.sponsorshipNelson Mandela Metropolitan University
dc.identifier.citationScience Advances, v. 1, n. 4, 2015.
dc.relation.ispartofScience Advances
dc.rights.accessRightsAcesso aberto
dc.titleCollapse of the world's largest herbivoresen


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