Geraniol-a flavoring agent with multifunctional effects in protecting the gastric and duodenal mucosa
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Geraniol is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol commonly used as a flavoring agent. The present study was undertaken to investigate antiulcerogenic effects of geraniol and to determine the possible mechanisms involved in this action. In the model of the ethanol-induced ulcer, treatment of rats with geraniol by oral route significantly inhibited gastric lesions by 70 % (7.50 mg/kg) to 99 % (200 mg/kg). Analysis of the gastric tissue of rats treated with geraniol (7.50 mg/kg) revealed that total glutathione content levels (GSH) increased and levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) decreased in the gastric mucosa. Oral treatment with geraniol significantly decreased the number of ulcerative lesions induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury by 71 % and the duodenal ulcers induced by cysteamine by 68 %. The action of geraniol was mediated by the activation of defensive mucosa-protective factors such as the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, endogenous prostaglandins, increased mucus production, increased sulfhydryl compounds, antioxidant properties and the stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release through the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV). The multifaceted gastroprotective mechanisms of geraniol represent a promising option for the treatment of gastric and duodenal mucosa injury.
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