Antidiarrheal and intestinal antiinflammatory activities of a methanolic extract of Qualea parviflora Mart. in experimental models
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: An ethnopharmacological survey indicated that the bark from Qualea parviflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae) could be used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhea and intestinal inflammation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a methanolic extract from the bark of Qualea parviflora (QP) in an experimental model of diarrhea and intestinal inflammation induced in rodents.Material and methods: The antidiarrheal and antispasmodic effects of QP were investigated by measuring intestinal motility, diarrhea, and intestinal fluid accumulation in rodents after challenging with a cathartic agent. In addition, the effects of QP on the contractility of the isolated mice-ileum preparation were determined. Acute intestinal inflammation was induced in male Wistar rats by the rectal administration of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in 50% ethanol (0.25 mL). QP was administered orally (for 5 days) prior to the induction of inflammation. The colonic injury and extent of inflammation were assessed by macroscopic damage scores and lesion length. The enhanced colonic mucosal injury, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress were evaluated by myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity; the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1 beta (IL1-beta), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels; and the glutathione (GSH) content.Results: Oral treatment with QP (500 mg/kg) delayed the onset of diarrhea, reduced the amount of liquid stool, and decreased the severity of the diarrhea and the evacuation index in rodents challenged with castor oil (p<0.01). Additionally, QP (150-500 mu g/mL) demonstrated effective antispasmodic activity against carbachol-induced contractions of mouse ileum in vitro. Oral treatment (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) with QP significantly reduced the intestinal inflammation induced by TNBS in rats (52% and 45%, respectively). Improvement of colonic mucosal injury by treatment with QP was demonstrated by a decrease in MDA levels and an increase in GSH content in colonic tissue. QP also prevented intestinal inflammation as evidenced by reduced cytokine levels (TNF-alpha and IL1-beta) and low MPO activity.Conclusions: The ethnopharmacological usefulness of the bark from Qualea parviflora against diarrhea containing blood and mucus was supported by the observed antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, and intestinal antiinflammatory properties of this medicinal plant. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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