Artigos - Ciências Biológicas - São Vicente

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    In Silico Evaluation of Quercetin Methylated Derivatives on the Interaction with Secretory Phospholipases A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops jararacussu
    (2023-04-01) Belchor, Mariana Novo [UNESP]; Costa, Caroline Ramos da Cruz [UNESP]; Roggero, Airam [UNESP]; Moraes, Laila L. F. [UNESP]; Samelo, Ricardo [UNESP]; Annunciato, Isabelly [UNESP]; de Oliveira, Marcos Antonio [UNESP]; Sousa, Sergio F.; Toyama, Marcos Hikari [UNESP]; Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Porto University
    Quercetin derivatives have already shown their anti-inflammatory potential, inhibiting essential enzymes involved in this process. Among diverse pro-inflammatory toxins from snake venoms, phospholipase A2 is one of the most abundant in some species, such as Crotalus durissus terrificus and Bothrops jararacussu from the Viperidae family. These enzymes can induce the inflammatory process through hydrolysis at the sn-2 position of glycerophospholipids. Hence, elucidating the main residues involved in the biological effects of these macromolecules can help to identify potential compounds with inhibitory activity. In silico tools were used in this study to evaluate the potential of quercetin methylated derivatives in the inhibition of bothropstoxin I (BthTX-I) and II (BthTX-II) from Bothrops jararacussu and phospholipase A2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus. The use of a transitional analogous and two classical inhibitors of phospholipase A2 guided this work to find the role of residues involved in the phospholipid anchoring and the subsequent development of the inflammatory process. First, main cavities were studied, revealing the best regions to be inhibited by a compound. Focusing on these regions, molecular docking assays were made to show main interactions between each compound. Results reveal that analogue and inhibitors, Varespladib (Var) and p-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB), guided quercetins derivatives analysis, revealing that Leu2, Phe5, Tyr28, glycine in the calcium-binding loop, His48, Asp49 of BthTX-II and Cdtspla2 were the main residues to be inhibited. 3MQ exhibited great interaction with the active site, similar to Var results, while Q anchored better in the BthTX-II active site. However, strong interactions in the C-terminal region, highlighting His120, seem to be crucial to decreasing contacts with phospholipid and BthTX-II. Hence, quercetin derivatives anchor differently with each toxin and further in vitro and in vivo studies are essential to elucidate these data.
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    The First Anti-Snakebite and Hepatoprotective Characterization of a Trypsin Kunitz-like Inhibitor (EcTI) from the Plant Enterolobium contortisiliquum: a Case of Two Soul Mates Meeting
    (2023-04-01) Costa, Caroline R. C. [UNESP]; Belchor, Mariana N. [UNESP]; Roggero, Airam [UNESP]; Moraes, Laila L. [UNESP]; Samelo, Ricardo [UNESP]; Annunciato, Isabelly [UNESP]; Bonturi, Camila R.; Oliva, Maria L. V.; Sousa, Sergio F.; de Oliveira, Marcos A. [UNESP]; Toyama, Marcos H. [UNESP]; Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Porto University
    Snake venom serine protease (SVSP) interferes with the regulation and control of important biological reactions in homeostasis and can be classified as an activator of the fibrinolytic system and platelet aggregation. Our group has recently isolated a new serine protease from Crotalus durissus terrificus total venom (Cdtsp-2). This protein exhibits edematogenic capacity and myotoxic activity. A Kunitz-like EcTI inhibitor protein with a molecular mass of 20 kDa was isolated from Enterolobium contortisiliquum and showed high trypsin inhibition. Thus, the objective of this work is to verify the possible inhibition of the pharmacological activities of Cdtsp-2 by the Kutinz-type inhibitor EcTI. To isolate Cdtsp-2 from total C. d. terrificus venom, we used three-step chromatographic HPLC. Using the mice paw edema model, we observed an edematogenic effect, myotoxicity and hepatotoxicity caused by Cdtsp-2. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that the alterations in hemostasis caused by Cdtsp-2 are crucial for the development of marked hepatotoxicity and that EcTI significantly inhibits the enzymatic and pharmacological activities of Cdtsp-2. Kunitz-like inhibitor may be a viable alternative for the development of ancillary treatments against the biological activities of venoms.
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    Antiproliferative activity of standardized herbal phytopreparation from Asclepias subulata
    (2022-01-01) González Gutiérrez, Francisco Humberto; Rascón Valenzuela, Luisa Alondra; Meneses Sagrero, Salvador Enrique; Dias-Silva, Marcelo J. [UNESP]; Valenzuela Antelo, Olivia; Velazquez, Carlos; Vilegas, Wagner [UNESP]; Robles Zepeda, Ramón Enrique; Universidad de Sonora; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Background: Several studies have shown that active compounds of Asclepias subulata (cardenolides) have antiproliferative effect on human cancer cells. Cardenolides isolated from A. subulata can be used as active chemical markers to elaborate phytopharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of a standardized extract of the aerial parts, based on Asclepias subulata cardenolides. Methods: Four standardized extracts were prepared by HPLC-DAD depending on the concentration of calotropin and the antiproliferative activity was measured for the MTT assay, on the A549, MCF-7, HeLa, PC3 and ARPE cell lines. The concentrations of calotropin used for the standardization of the extracts were 10, 7.6, 5 and 1 mg/dL. Results: Standardization of the A. subulata extract based on calotropin at 7.6 mg/g dry weight was achieved and the antiproliferative activity was evaluated over A549, HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, obtaining proliferation percentages of 3.8 to 13.4%. Conclusions: The standardized extracts of A. subulata at different concentrations of calotropin showed antiproliferative activity against all the cell lines evaluated. The greatest effect was observed against the HeLa cell line.
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    Understanding the Seasonal Effect of Metabolite Production in Terminalia catappa L. Leaves through a Concatenated MS- and NMR-Based Metabolomics Approach
    (2023-03-01) Zanatta, Ana C. [UNESP]; Vieira, Natália Carolina [UNESP]; Dantas-Medeiros, Renato; Vilegas, Wagner [UNESP]; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); University of Strathclyde; Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
    Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) is a medicinal plant that is part of the Brazilian biodiversity; this plant is popularly used for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. To better understand the chemical composition of T. catappa in different seasons, we conducted a thorough study using LC-MS and NMR data analysis techniques. The study helped obtain a chemical profile of the plant ethanolic extracts in different seasons of the year (spring, summer, autumn, and winter). The dereplication of LC-HRMS data allowed the annotation of 90 compounds in the extracts of T. catappa (hydrolyzable tannins, ellagic acid derivatives, and glycosylated flavonoids). Triterpenes and C-glycosyl flavones were the compounds that significantly contributed to differences observed between T. catappa plant samples harvested in autumn/winter and spring, respectively. The variations observed in the compound composition of the plant leaves may be related to processes induced by environmental stress and leaf development. Data fusion applied in the metabolomic profiling study allowed us to identify metabolites with greater confidence, and provided a better understanding regarding the production of specialized metabolites in T. catappa leaves under different environmental conditions, which may be useful to establish appropriate quality criteria for the standardization of this medicinal plant.
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    Exploring functional and structural features of chemically related natural prenylated hydroquinone and benzoic acid from Piper crassinervium (Piperaceae) on bacterial peroxiredoxin inhibition
    (2023-02-01) Montanhero Cabrera, Vitoria Isabela [UNESP]; do Nascimento Sividanes, Gabrielle [UNESP]; Quintiliano, Natalia Fernanda; Toyama, Marcos Hikari [UNESP]; Ghilardi Lago, João Henrique; de Oliveira, Marcos Antonio [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC)
    Multiple drug resistance (MDR) bacterial strains are responsible by 1.2 million of human deaths all over the world. The pathogens possess efficient enzymes which are able to mitigate the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by some antibiotics and the host immune cells. Among them, the bacterial peroxiredoxin alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C (AhpC) is able to decompose efficiently several kinds of hydroperoxides. To decompose their substrates AhpC use a reactive cysteine residue (peroxidatic cysteine—CysP) that together with two other polar residues (Thr/Ser and Arg) comprise the catalytic triad of these enzymes and are involved in the substrate targeting/stabilization to allow a bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) reaction. Additionally to the high efficiency the AhpC is very abundant in the cells and present virulent properties in some bacterial species. Despite the importance of AhpC in bacteria, few studies aimed at using natural compounds as inhibitors of this class of enzymes. Some natural products were identified as human isoforms, presenting as common characteristics a bulk hydrophobic moiety and an α, β-unsaturated carbonylic system able to perform a thiol-Michael reaction. In this work, we evaluated two chemically related natural products: 1,4-dihydroxy-2-(3’,7’-dimethyl-1’-oxo-2’E,6’-octadie-nyl) benzene (C1) and 4-hydroxy-2-(3’,7’-dimethyl-1’-oxo-2’E,6’-octadienyl) benzoic acid (C2), both were isolated from branches Piper crassinervium (Piperaceae), over the peroxidase activity of AhpC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaAhpC) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (SeAhpC). By biochemical assays we show that although both compounds can perform the Michael addition reaction, only compound C2 was able to inhibit the PaAhpC peroxidase activity but not SeAhpC, presenting IC50 = 20.3 μM. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the compound was not able to perform a thiol-Michael addition, suggesting another inhibition behavior. Using computer-assisted simulations, we also show that an acidic group present in the structure of compound C2 may be involved in the stabilization by polar interactions with the Thr and Arg residues from the catalytic triad and several apolar interactions with hydrophobic residues. Finally, C2 was not able to interfere in the peroxidase activity of the isoform Prx2 from humans or even the thiol proteins of the Trx reducing system from Escherichia coli (EcTrx and EcTrxR), indicating specificity for P. aeruginosa AhpC.
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    HPLC-PDA and UPLC-ESI-TqD-MS/MS chromatographic analyses of commercial samples of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (“green tea”)
    (2016-01-01) Silva, J. Z.; Tangerina, M. M.P. [UNESP]; Rocha, C. Q. [UNESP]; Amaral, F. P.; Bento, C. C.; Tahira, L. S. [UNESP]; Vilegas, W. [UNESP]; Sannomiya, M.; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade Federal de Rondônia
    The analysis by HPLC-PDA, PCA and the injection of standard compounds contributed considerably for the evaluation of the secondary metabolites of four commercial samples of Camellia sinensis. All analyzed samples, except sample number 2, when extracted with ethanol-water mixture, presented catechin derivatives, fenolic acids, methylxanthines and flavonoids, which are commonly found in the species under study. It is possible that sample number 2 does not correspond to C. sinensis or may have been collected in a specific time when the main metabolites were not being produced. Quantification by UPLC-ESI-TqD-MS/ MS of the caffeine content the samples of C. sinensis showed that the values obtained in this work vary between 2.72 to 7.02 g/100 g of crude extract. Moreover, all samples analyzed showed a higher content of caffeine than those previously reported in the literature, except sample number 1. Analysis by PCA of the total ions of the samples showed that sample number 3 infusion is quite different from the other samples. These data allow us to infer that caffeine can be a taxonomic marker in the samples of C. sinensis. However, its presence cannot be conclusive in the quality control of a medicinal plant, since the total composition of caffeine may vary significantly and, therefore, and its consumption may not provide the expected efficacy.
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    Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography using a fused-core particle column for fast analysis of propolis phenolic compounds
    (2023-02-01) Contieri, Letícia S.; de Souza Mesquita, Leonardo M; Sanches, Vitor L.; Viganó, Juliane; Kamikawachi, Renan Canute [UNESP]; Vilegas, Wagner [UNESP]; Rostagno, Mauricio A.; Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP); Universidade Federal de São Carlos (UFSCar); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Propolis is a bee product with a complex chemicalcomposition formed by several species from different geographical origins. The complex propolis composition requires an accurate and reproducible characterization of samples to standardize the quality of the material sold to consumers. This work developed an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector method to analyze propolis phenolic compounds based on the two key propolis biomarkers, Artepillin C and p-Coumaric acid. This choice was made due to the complexity of the sample with the presence of several compounds. The optimized method was hyphenated with mass spectrometry detection allowing the detection of 23 different compounds. A step-by-step strategy was used to optimize temperature, flow rate, mobile phase composition, and re-equilibration time. Reverse-phase separation was achieved with a C18 fused-core column packed with the commercially available smallest particles (1.3 nm). Using a fused-core column with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography allows highly efficient, sensitive, accurate, and reproducible determination of compounds extracted from propolis with an outstanding sample throughput and resolution. Optimized conditions permitted the separation of the compounds in 5.50 min with a total analysis time (sample-to-sample) of 6.50 min.
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    Plastic pellets make Excirolana armata more aggressive: Intraspecific interactions and mortality in field and laboratory ecotoxicological assays
    (2022-12-01) Izar, Gabriel Mendes; Laurino, Ivan Rodrigo Abrão; Tan, Tjui-Yeuw [UNESP]; Nobre, Caio Rodrigues [UNESP]; Gusso-Choueri, Paloma Kachel [UNESP]; Moreno, Beatriz Barbosa; Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza [UNESP]; Martinez, Sabrina Teixeira; da Rocha, Gisele Olímpio; Albergaria-Barbosa, Ana Cecília Rizzatti; Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA); Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Santa Cecília University
    Microplastics, including plastic pellets, get stranded on sandy beaches. They persist in the oceans for long periods and frequently carry contaminants. Acute and chronic toxicity has been observed when marine organisms are exposed to high densities of plastic pellets in laboratory assays. We investigated the toxicity of beach-stranded plastic pellets on macrobenthic populations (Excirolana armata; Crustacea; Isopoda) under natural conditions (in situ). We simulated different pellets densities on a beach not contaminated by pellets, exposing isopods for 6 h and testing possible behavioral responses (i.e., vertical displacement) and mortality effects. No effect was observed on vertical displacement, but higher mortality was reported for organisms exposed to plastic pellets. The lowest pellet density tested commonly found in coastal areas was sufficient to trigger mortality. We also observed that lethargic individuals (near-death) were preyed on by the healthy individuals remaining in the test chambers.
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    Government initiative and policies on water conservation and wastewater treatment in Brazil
    (2020-01-01) Abessa, Denis Moledo de Souza [UNESP]; Ambrozevicius, Andrea Pimenta; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Setor Policial (SPO)
    This chapter aims to describe the water management and conservation in Brazil and show how the public policies evolved along time. It starts by presenting the geographical context and the main hydrographic basins of the country, with their respective characteristics. Then, it presents the historical and legal framework of the water management in the country, addressing the evolution of actions and public policies. Next, the chapter describes the National Policy of Water Resources (PNRH), with the respective tools for water resources management and the institutional adjustments required to allow the policy implementation, such as the creation of the National Water Agency. By the end of the chapter, some additional initiatives taken by the public power to improve the PNRH effectiveness are discussed, and the perspectives for the future are presented.
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    Phylogeographic Structure within the Fiddler Crabs Leptuca thayeri and Uca maracoani (Brachyura, Ocypodidae) along the Tropical West Atlantic
    (2022-01-01) Marochi, Murilo Zanetti [UNESP]; Tangerina, Marcelo Marucci Pereira [UNESP]; Rodrigues, Renata de Oliveira [UNESP]; Laurenzano, Claudia; Vilegas, Wagner [UNESP]; Costa, Tânia M. [UNESP]; Schubart, Christoph D.; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Zoology and Evolutionary Biology
    Most fiddler crabs have an extended planktonic larval phase, potentially maintaining gene flow among widely separated populations, in the absence of marine barriers. Such marine barriers could be long coastal stretches without suitable habitat, freshwater plumes caused by large river mouths, or strong currents. Typically, fiddler crabs inhabit mangrove habitats, and as mangroves tend to have a patchy distribution, it is important to gather information on the connectivity between neighboring mangroves and recognize local endemisms. To detect potential genetic differentiation among mangrove-dwelling populations of Leptuca thayeri and Uca maracoani along several thousand kilometers of a tropical coastline, mtDNA sequences of different populations from Brazil and two Caribbean islands were analyzed and compared. As shown in previous studies with fiddler crabs, Brazilian populations are genetically indiscernible, and our data suggest the absence of long-standing gene flow barriers in the two studied species along the Brazilian coast. This includes both sides of the postulated biogeographic barriers corresponding to the split of the Central South Equatorial Current and to the Amazon River freshwater plume. In contrast, conspecific individuals from the Greater Antilles carried different haplotypes, suggesting a biogeographical barrier between Brazil and the Caribbean, apparently having limited gene flow between both regions for extended time periods.
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    Assessing bivalve growth using bio-energetic models
    (2022-11-01) Tan, Tjui Yeuw [UNESP]; Miraldo, Marcel Câmara [UNESP]; Fontes, Roberto Fioravanti Carelli [UNESP]; Vannucchi, Fabio Stucchi [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Aquaculture can play a key role in providing sustainable and low-cost protein sources, with the potential to help particularly the socially and economically vulnerable population. Although many coastal populations already complement their diet by extracting wild brown mussels (Perna perna, Mytilidae) from the environment, an explicit assessment for mussel growth potential along the Brazilian coast has been conspicuously lacking. We provide a large-scale assessment for prospecting and developing mussel culture by applying a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model coupled with remote sensing. We estimated DEB parameters for the P. perna Brazilian population and used satellite-derived yearly data was used as forcing variables, containing information of chlorophyll-a concentration as a proxy for food concentration, sea-surface temperature to modulate metabolic performance, and particulate organic carbon - discounted the contribution of chlorophyll-a - to take into account the negative effect of particles in the mussel ingestion rates. We then simulated mussel growth along a large region of the Brazilian coast and obtained the time it takes for the mussel to reach a 5 cm market-relevant length within each pixel as a means to visualize mapped mussel growth potential indicating the time it takes to reach commercial length. Our results highlight the regions where mussel growth can be relevant for supporting subsistence livelihoods and also for securing income for local communities by performing economic activities, as many of the identified regions do not yet have active mussel culture sites. We also show that mussels can be used for ecosystem services in regions where farming for human consumption is not advisable. Our study provides further evidence that bioenergetic models coupled with remote sensing allow for a pragmatic and cost-effective path to assess growth performance along large regions with implications for developmental policy and spatial planning.
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    Pelagic and estuarine birds as sentinels of metal(loid)s in the South Atlantic Ocean: Ecological niches as main factors acting on bioaccumulation
    (2023-06-01) Lima, Guilherme dos Santos [UNESP]; Menegario, Amauri Antonio [UNESP]; Suarez, Carlos Alfredo [UNESP]; Kamazuka, Silvia Harumi [UNESP]; Gemeiner, Hendryk [UNESP]; Sánchez-Sarmiento, Angélica Maria; Ferioli, Raquel Beneton; Barreto, André Silva; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Argonauta Institute for Coastal and Marine Conservation; University of Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI)
    Activities related to the offshore exploration and production of oil and natural gas provide economic development and an essential energy source. However, besides the risk of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination, these activities can also be sources of metals and metalloids for marine organism contamination. In this research, we evaluated the potential use of two pelagic (black-browed albatross Thalassarche melanophris and yellow-nosed albatross T. chlororhynchos) and one estuarine bird species (neotropical cormorant Nannopterum brasilianus) as sentinels of contamination of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Mo, Zn, Ni, Ba, V, and Hg in an area under influence of oil and gas activities. The analyses were carried out in samples collected from 2015 to 2022 from 97 individuals. A factor alert; an adaptation from the contamination factor is proposed to identify individuals with high concentrations that possibly suffered contamination by anthropogenic origin. Grouping all species, the metal(loid)s with the highest concentrations were in decreasing order: Zn > Cu > Mn > Hg > As > Cd > Mo > V > Cr > Ba > Ni > Pb. Similar concentrations were observed for V, Mn, Cr and Pb among the three species. Pelagic birds showed higher levels of concentrations for Hg, As and Cd. Based on the correlations and multivariate analysis performed, the results indicate that the ecological niche factor has greater relevance in the bioaccumulation of these elements compared to the habitat. Although some individuals showed high concentrations in part of the trace elements, suggesting exposure to anthropic sources, the direct influence of oil production and exploration activities was not observed, suggesting that activities on the continent are the primary contamination source. The results of this work highlight the role of seabirds as sentinels for metal(loid)s, contributing to the knowledge of the occurrence of contaminants in the South Atlantic Ocean.
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    Plasma Fibrinogen as a Predictor of Perioperative-Blood-Component Transfusion in Major-Nontraumatic-Orthopedic-Surgery Patients: A Cohort Study
    (2023-03-01) Pagnussatt Neto, Eugenio [UNESP]; Lopes da Costa, Paula Daniele [UNESP]; Gurgel, Sanderland J. Tavares [UNESP]; Schmidt Azevedo, Paula [UNESP]; Modolo, Norma S. Pinheiro [UNESP]; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); São Vicente de Paulo Hospital
    There is a trend towards increased perioperative bleeding in patients with plasma fibrinogen levels < 200 mg/dL−1. This study aimed to assess whether there is an association between preoperative fibrinogen levels and perioperative blood-product transfusion up to 48 h after major orthopedic surgery. This cohort study included 195 patients who underwent primary or revision hip arthroplasty for nontraumatic etiologies. Plasma fibrinogen, blood count, coagulation tests, and platelet count were measured preoperatively. A plasma fibrinogen level of 200 mg/dL−1 was the cutoff value used to predict blood transfusion. The mean (SD) plasma fibrinogen level was 325 (83) mg/dL−1. Only thirteen patients had levels < 200 mg/dL−1, and only one of them received a blood transfusion, with an absolute risk of 7.69% (1/13; 95%CI: 1.37–33.31%). Preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels were not associated with the need for blood transfusion (p = 0.745). The sensitivity and the positive predictive value of plasma fibrinogen < 200 mg/dL−1 as a predictor of blood transfusion were 4.17% (95%CI: 0.11–21.12%) and 7.69% (95%CI: 1.12–37.99%), respectively. Test accuracy was 82.05% (95%CI: 75.93–87.17%), but positive and negative likelihood ratios were poor. Therefore, preoperative plasma fibrinogen level in hip-arthroplasty patients was not associated with the need for blood-product transfusion.
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    Morphology is not always useful for diagnosis, and that's ok: Species hypotheses should not be bound to a class of data. Reply to Brown and Gibbons (S Afr J Sci. 2022;118(9/10), Art. #12590)
    (2022-01-01) Lawley, Jonathan W.; Gamero-Mora, Edgar; Maronna, Maximiliano M.; Chiaverano, Luciano M.; Stampar, Sérgio N. [UNESP]; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Collins, Allen G.; Morandini, André C.; Universidade de São Paulo (USP); Griffith University; National Institute for Fisheries Research and Development; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); University of Alaska-Fairbanks; Smithsonian Institution
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    Advances in population monitoring of the mangrove ‘uçá’-crab (Ucides cordatus): reduction of body size variance for better evaluation of population structure and extractive potential
    (2023-01-01) Pinheiro, Marcelo A. A. [UNESP]; Sousa, Fernanda V. B. [UNESP]; Perroca, Julia F. [UNESP]; Silva, Mauro M. T.; Souza, Raimundo L. M.; Mota, Thais A.; Rocha, Sérgio S.; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Gestão de Conhecimentos para o Desenvolvimento Socioambiental (PPGC); Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA); Laboratório de Macroinvertebrados Bentônicos
    Monitoring focusing on target species is an important tool to better understand biodiversity. The density, size, extractive potential and population structure of Ucides cordatus reflects the conservation of the mangrove ecosystem. The Federal Brazilian Institution of Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio) defined a protocol to standardize and estimate these parameters using an indirect method that does not depend on the capture of individuals of a species. In this protocol are used models to adjust diameter of crabs' gallery (DG) measures into largest carapace width (LC). Because this relationship (LC vs. DG) can differ according to geographic positions, the present study assessed it in three Brazilian mangrove areas (north, north-east, and south-east regions). Linear models of this relationship were compared between sexes, and also applied as a single model considering these Brazilian localities as a fixed factor and in three independent models for each locality separately. Equations did not differ significantly between sex and could be represented as one to each locality. However, a simpler linear model not including mangroves as fixed factors can be used to represent the entire latitudinal gradient, promoting a homogeneity of the estimation error, due to cover the entire body size (LC) variation of the Ucides cordatus crab.
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    Interaction between reduced pH and multiple stressors affects the physiology of the fiddler crab Leptuca thayeri (Rathbun, 1900) (Decapoda: Brachyura: Ocypodidae)
    (2022-12-01) De Andrade, Isabel M. [UNESP]; Ferreira, Julia R. Do C. [UNESP]; Ramaglia, Andressa C. [UNESP]; Augusto, Alessandra [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Increasing ocean acidification combined with other impacts may cause changes in homeostatic mechanisms of intertidal invertebrates. Stressors do not act in isolation, and experimental work is needed to assess their synergistic potential. We evaluated the effect of exposure to multiple stressors on the survival, osmoregulation, metabolism, Q10, excretion, hepatosomatic index, and energy substrate oxidation on of the fiddler crab Leptuca thayeri (Rathbun, 1900). Crabs were exposed to two pH values (7.0, 6.3) combined with temperatures (20, 25, 30, 35, 40 °C) and these pH values combined with salinities (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 psu) during acute exposure. All individuals died at 40 °C. Crabs osmoregulated, suggesting that the factors evaluated did not affect salt absorption or secretion. Individuals were weak hyperosmorregulators at lower salinities in the pH 7 control, but they became strong hyperosmoregulators at acidified pH 6.3. Alterations in oxygen consumption and hepatosomatic index were observed in individuals exposed to the acidified pH combined with temperatures or salinities, compared to those kept in the control pH. Q10 was elevated under an acidified pH, with crabs using proteins and lipids as energy substrates. The interaction between reduced pH and temperature or salinity thus affected physiological mechanisms related to the energetic metabolism, but elevated temperatures are more limiting because they affected survival. These physiological effects of acute exposure offer clues about extreme climatic events, which have a short duration but can affect the related energy demands.
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    Water and sediment toxicity and hazard assessment of DCOIT towards neotropical marine organisms
    (2023-08-01) Campos, B. G. [UNESP]; Moreira, L. B. [UNESP]; G.F.E., Pauly [UNESP]; Cruz, A. C.F. [UNESP]; Perina, F. C.; Abreu, F.; Fillmann, G.; Abessa, D. M.S. [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Universidade de São Paulo (USP); University of Aveiro; Rio Grande Federal University (FURG)
    DCOIT is an effective antifouling biocide, which presence in the environment and toxicity towards non-target species has been generating great concern. This study evaluated the waterborne toxicity of DCOIT on marine invertebrates (i.e., survival of brine shrimp Artemia sp., larval development of the sea urchin Echinometra lucunter and the mussel Perna perna), as well as DCOIT-spiked-sediment toxicity on the fecundity rate of the copepod Nitrocra sp. And the mortality of the amphipod Tiburonella viscana. The data outcomes were used to calculate environmental hazards and risks, which were compared to their corresponding values obtained from temperate regions. Waterborne toxicity can be summarized as follows: Artemia sp. (LC50–48h = 163 (135–169) μg/L), E. lucunter (EC50–36h = 33.9 (17–65) μg/L), and P. perna (EC50–48h = 8.3 (7–9) μg/L). For whole-sediment toxicity, metrics were calculated for T. viscana (LC50-10d = 0.5 (0.1–2.6) μg/g) and Nitrocra sp, (EC50-10d = 200 (10–480) μg/kg). The DCOIT hazard was assessed for both tropical and non-tropical pelagic organisms. The predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for tropical species (0.19 μg/L) was 1.7-fold lower than that for non-tropical organisms (0.34 μg/L). In whole-sediment exposures, DCOIT presented a PNEC of 0.97 μg/kg, and the risk quotients (RQs) were >1 for areas with constant input of DCOIT such as ports ship/boatyards, marinas, and maritime traffic zones of Korea, Japan, Spain, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Brazil. The presented data are important for supporting the establishment of policies and regulations for booster biocides worldwide.
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    Density and extractive potential of “uçá”-crab, Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763), in mangroves of the “Todos os Santos” Bay, Bahia, Brazil
    (2023-09-01) Mota, Thaís Arrais; Pinheiro, Marcelo Antonio Amaro [UNESP]; Evangelista-Barreto, Norma Suely; da Rocha, Sérgio Schwarz; Ambientais e Biológicas; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP); Laboratório de Macroinvertebrados Bentônicos
    Ucides cordatus is one of the main fishery resources of the “Todos os Santos” Bay (BTS), State of Bahia, Brazil. Population parameters (structure, density, and fishery potential) of this crab species were analyzed in the dry and rainy seasons in nine mangrove areas of BTS. Five sample quadrats (5 × 5 m) were used to record the number and diameter of active open burrows (with biogenic activity) and closed burrows of U. cordatus, tree variables (composition, density, and diameter), and flood level. Crab density (ind.m−2) was indirectly estimated by counting galleries. The diameter of open galleries was converted into carapace width (CW) using a regression model to later characterize the U. cordatus population structure. There were more galleries in the dry season than in the rainy season. Crab density ranged from 0.32 to 2.63 ind.m−2 (1.32 ± 0.90 ind.m−2), and the mean density was higher during the dry period (t = 0.02; p < 0.05). Crab density differed among sampling areas regardless of seasonal period. Crab size (CW) in BTS was 52.4 ± 16.7 mm, with specimens significantly larger during the dry period (t = 0.01; p < 0.05), and there was a significant difference (F = 4.57; p = 000.1) among mangrove areas. Non-commercial size animals (CW < 60.0 mm) were more abundant (65.2%) than those with commercial size (34.8%) in BTS. Crab density and flood level showed significant negative correlation (p = −0.51; p < 0.05), while there was a positive correlation between CW and flooding level (p = 0.40; p < 0.05). U. cordatus population parameters differed significantly among BTS sampling sites due to their heterogeneity. This study is the first assessment of “uçá”-crab populations in BTS mangroves and reveals a need for a sustainable management in the area. Furthermore, this study could be a model for monitoring other large brachyuran species inhabiting estuarine systems, which are economically and biologically relevant.
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    Environmental and socioeconomic perceptions about the extraction of ‘uçá’-crab (Ucides cordatus) in the Estuarine System of Itanhaém (southeast Brazil): contributions to conservation and management
    (2020-01-01) de Souza, Fernanda Vargas Barbi [UNESP]; Pinheiro, Marcelo Antonio Amaro [UNESP]; Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    The ‘uçá’-crab (Ucides cordatus) is an endemic mangrove decapod crustacean with distribution along of Brazilian coast. This species participates in bioturbation of the sediments, the organic matter/energy flow, and in trophic chain in this coastal environment. Traditional coastal communities ‘caiçaras’ survive on capture and trading of this crustacean, which, being a typical extractive activity in Brazilian mangroves, can harm the environment when in disagreement with current regulations. The present study aimed to raise socioeconomic information associated with the ethnobiological knowledge of ‘uçá’-crab catchers from the Itanhaém River Estuary (SP), in relation to the conservation status of this species and mangrove. Crab catchers were obtained by the snowball technique and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed in a qualitative and quantitative way, through the Discourse of the Collective Subject, whenever possible supported statistically. The number of crab catchers who work in this estuarine system (n = 9), exceeded by 80% that indicated by the Fisheries Colony “Z-13”. All respondents belonged to the male gender, 67% of which come from the municipality itself, 33% working underground, which puts the management of the species at risk. Among the negative impacts on the mangrove, 100% of the collectors are concerned with its destruction, irregular occupation and suppression of riparian forest, while 78% mentioned the contamination by solid waste, indicating that monitoring and inspection actions are essential to management and conservation of this ecosystem.
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    Population biology of the freshwater crab Dilocarcinus pagei Stimpson, 1861 (Decapoda: Trichodactylidae) in the Araguari River, south-eastern Brazil
    (2023-01-01) Barboza, A. C.G.; Nogueira, C. S. [UNESP]; Calixto-Cunha, M.; Londe, B. P.; Jacobucci, G. B.; Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU); Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP)
    Dilocarcinus pagei is a freshwater crab that has a wide distribution in South America, occurring in the main river basins of Brazil. Our study analysed some aspects of the population biology of D. pagei in a population that occurs in the Araguari River, in south-eastern Brazil. Crabs were sampled between September 2020 and November 2021. The population structure was analysed according to the organisms’ size, sex and life stage. The frequency of demographic groups (adults and juveniles) over months was assessed using an environmental gradient analysis and a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). A total of 392 crabs were collected, 282 males and 110 females. Male crabs were more abundant during most of the sampling period. Thus, the sex ratio in general and for most months was biased towards males. Gradient and CCA analyses showed seasonality in the occurrence of ovigerous females. This demographic group was more frequently sampled when the local rainfall increased. Our study provides relevant information about the population and reproductive biology of D. pagei, which may contribute to the understanding of the reproductive traits of freshwater crabs and also the ecological role of this species in the environments it inhabits.