A review of graphene oxide, graphene buckypaper, and polymer/graphene composites: Properties and fabrication techniques
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In this critical review, the preparation methods, unique properties, and graphene oxide structure as well as graphene have been interpreted. Various aspects for the graphene oxide reactivity were also discussed. Graphene oxide, usually obtained by exfoliating graphite, provides a way towards flexible, low-cost, bulk production paper-like materials known as buckypapers. Recently, graphene oxide and graphene buckypaper have been used as fillers for preparing composites. The buckypapers are freestanding thin porous network of carbon fillers bound by van der Waals interactions. Several techniques have been used to fabricate graphene oxide and graphene-based paper-like materials such as vacuum filtration method; spin coating technique, resin infiltration technique, evaporation-induced, and self-assembly technique. Among these, the most suitable technique is Langmuir-Blodgett assembly, where the graphene oxide paper formed is usually highly uniform. Free standing polymer/graphene oxide and polymer/graphene paper materials show remarkable mechanical stiffness and excellent flexibility combined with outstanding electrical conductivity. Incorporating polymer into graphene oxide and graphene buckypaper may modify the polymer and filler properties producing high performance materials. The buckypaper made from functionalized filler may form networks that facilitate penetrating matrix chains and result in composites with improved mechanical performance. Due to their outstanding physical, thermal, and electrical properties, these papers have promising applications such as; body armour, aerospace structure improvement, armoured vehicles, flexible energy storage devices, sensors, memory devices, transparent conductors, and photovoltaics.
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