Temporal assessment of microbial communities in soils of two contrasting mangroves
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Variations in microbial communities promoted by alterations in environmental conditions are reflected in similarities/differences both at taxonomic and functional levels. Here we used a natural gradient within mangroves from seashore to upland, to contrast the natural variability in bacteria, cyanobacteria and diazotroph assemblages in a pristine area compared to an oil polluted area along a timespan of three years, based on ARISA (bacteria and cyanobacteria) and nifH T-RFLP (diazotrophs) fingerprinting. The data presented herein indicated that changes in all the communities evaluated were mainly driven by the temporal effect in the contaminated area, while local effects were dominant on the pristine mangrove. A positive correlation of community structure between diazotrophs and cyanobacteria was observed, suggesting the functional importance of this phylum as nitrogen fixers in mangroves soils. Different ecological patterns explained the microbial behavior in the pristine and polluted mangroves. Stochastic models in the pristine mangrove indicate that there is not a specific environmental factor that determines the bacterial distribution, while cyanobacteria and diazotrophs better fitted in deterministic model in the same area. For the contaminated mangrove site, deterministic models better represented the variations in the communities, suggesting that the presence of oil might change the microbial ecological structures over time. Mangroves represent a unique environment threatened by global change, and this study contributed to the knowledge of the microbial distribution in such areas and its response on persistent contamination historic events. (C) 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.