Assessment of the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of the commercial black dye in Allium cepa cells before and after bacterial biodegradation treatment
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The present study evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic actions of different concentrations (50 and 200 μg/L) of BDCP (Black Dye Commercial Product) used by textile industries, before and after bacterial biodegradation, by the conventional staining cytogenetic technique and NOR-banding in Allium cepa cells. Differences in the chromosomal and nuclear aberrations and alterations in the number of nucleoli were observed in cells exposed to BDCP with and without the microbial treatment. The significant frequencies of chromosome and nuclear aberrations noted in the tests with bacterially biodegraded BDCP indicate that the metabolites generated by degradation are more genotoxic than the chemical itself. Losses of genetic material characterize a type of alteration that was mainly associated with the action of the original BDCP, whereas chromosome stickiness, nuclear buds and binucleated cells were the aberrations that were preferentially induced by BDCP metabolites after biodegradation. The significant frequencies of cell death observed in the tests with biodegraded BDCP also show the cytotoxic effects of the BDCP metabolites. The reduction in the total frequency of altered cells after the recovery treatments showed that the test organism A. cepa has the ability to recover from damage induced by BDCP and its metabolites after the exposure conditions are normalized.