Electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique as alternative to monitor workpiece surface damages after the grinding operation
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Electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique has been employed in detection of structural failure in civil and mechanical structures because of its non-destructive property and easy implementation of small and inexpensive piezoelectric transducers that are attached to the structures, which lead to cost reduction as well as lesser dependence of manual inspection methods. In this technique, the capsule is excited by applying a sinusoidal voltage to generate waves to propagate throughout the structure. From the impedance signature of the structure without any damage, any structural change can be detected by measuring the electrical impedance of the piezoelectric (PZT) patch. Based on its real potentiality and because of its non-destructive characteristics, this work aimed to employ the EMI technique as the first alternative to monitor workpiece surface damages after grinding operation with a conventional abrasive grinding wheel. EMI measurements were performed by using a low-cost PZT transducer and under controlled environmental conditions. Microhardness and surface roughness of the machined surfaces, as well as grinding power, were also measured to detect any damage in the machined surface and to stablish relationship with the EMI technique. From the damage indices root mean square deviation (RMSD) and correlation coefficient deviation metric (CCDM), surface alterations on the ground surfaces were inferred by the EMI method. Also, it was observed a good correlation between the EMI technique and the other output parameters that were investigated in this work, such as surface roughness and power grinding, thereby posing as a non-destructive, low-cost, and viable technique to monitor workpiece surface damages in the grinding operation.