Surface-treated commercially pure titanium for biomedical applications: Electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical characterizations
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Modified surfaces have improved the biological performance and biomechanical fixation of dental implants compared to machined (polished) surfaces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the surface properties of titanium (Ti) as a function of different surface treatment. This study investigated the role of surface treatments on the electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical properties of commercial pure titanium (cp-Ti) under different electrolytes. Cp-Ti discs were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): machined (M-control); etched with HCl + H2O2 (Cl), H2SO4 +H2O2 (S); sandblasted with Al2O3 (Sb), Al2O3 followed by HCl + H2O2 (SbCl), and Al2O3 followed by H2SO4 + H2O2 (SbS). Electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs 3; 6.5 and 9) and simulated body fluid (SBF-pH 7.4). All surfaces were characterized before and after corrosion tests using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive microscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. The results indicated that Cl group exhibited the highest polarization resistance (Rp) and the lowest capacitance (Q) and corrosion current density (Icorr) values. Reduced corrosion stability was noted for the sandblasted groups. Acidic artificial saliva decreased the Rp values of cp-Ti surfaces and produced the highest Icorr values. Also, the surface treatment and corrosion process influenced the surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. Based on these results, it can be concluded that acid-etching treatment improved the electrochemical stability of cp-Ti and all treated surfaces behaved negatively in acidic artificial saliva.