4-hydrazinobenzoic acid as a derivatizing agent for aldehyde analysis by HPLC-UV and CE-DAD
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Aldehydes are relevant analytes in a wide range of samples, in particular, food and beverages but also body fluids. Hydrazines can undergo nucleophilic addition with aldehydes or ketones giving origin to hydrazones (a group of stable imines) that can be suitably used in the identification of aldehydes. Herein, 4-hydrazinobenzoic acid (HBA) was, for the first time, used as the derivatizing agent in analytical methodologies using liquid chromatography aiming the determination of low-molecular aldehydes. The derivatization reaction was simultaneously performed along with the extraction process, using gas-diffusion microextraction (GDME), which resulted in a clean extract containing the HBA-aldehyde derivates. The corresponding formed imines were determined by both high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) with UV spectrophotometric detection (HPLC-UV) and capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD). HBA showed to be a rather advantageous derivatization reagent due to its stability, relatively high solubility in water and other solvents, high selectivity and sensibility, reduced impurities, simple preparation steps and applicability to different separation and/or different detection techniques. Limits of detections (LODs) of the optimized methodologies (in terms of time and pH among other experimental variables) were all below 0.5 mg L−1, using both instrumental techniques. Furthermore, for the first time, the HBA-aldehyde derivatives were analyzed by LC with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), demonstrating the possibility of identification by MS of each compound. The developed methodologies were also successfully applied in the analysis of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in several alcoholic beverages. This was also the first time GDME was combined with CE, showing that it can be a valuable sample preparation tool for electrophoresis, in particular by eliminating the interference of ions and inorganic constituents present in the samples.