Recent Developments and Challenges for Nanoscale Formulation of Botanical Pesticides for Use in Sustainable Agriculture
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In recent years, the use of substances of natural origin, such as botanical pesticides, has emerged as a preferred alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides, the excessive use of which has raised a lot of concern over safety to human/animal health and the environment. Recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up a new avenue for the development of more efficient formulations that can overcome many of the obstacles generally faced in their use in the field, such as loss of activity because of degradation, instability, volatilization, and so on. This Review discusses the key developments in this area, as well as the challenges in relation to nanoscale formulation of botanical pesticides. It presents an appraisal of the recent scientific research, along with an account of the products that have already reached the market. While it acknowledges the great potential of nanotechnology-derived formulations of botanical pesticides for increasing agricultural productivity and reducing health and the environmental impacts, it also highlights the technological challenges that must be addressed to enable adoption of the technology for wider use in agri-food production.