Encapsulation of Local Anesthetic Bupivacaine in Biodegradable Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) Nanospheres: Factorial Design, Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies
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Local anesthetic agents cause temporary blockade of nerve impulses productiong insensitivity to painful stimuli in the area supplied by that nerve. Bupivacaine (BVC) is an amide-type local anesthetic widely used in surgery and obstetrics for sustained peripheral and central nerve blockade. in this study, we prepared and characterized nanosphere formulations containing BVC. To achieve these goals, BVC loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres (NS) were prepared by nanopreciptation and characterized with regard to size distribution, drug loading and cytotoxicity assays. The 2(3-1) factorial experimental design was used to study the influence of three different independent variables on nanoparticle drug loading. BVC was assayed by HPLC, the particle size and zeta potential were determined by dynamic light scattering. BVC was determined using a combined ultrafiltration-centrifugation technique. The results of optimized formulations showed a narrow size distribution with a polydispersivity of 0.05%, an average diameter of 236.7 +/- 2.6 nm and the zeta potential -2.93 +/- 1,10 mV. In toxicity studies with fibroblast 3T3 cells, BVC loaded-PLGA-NS increased cell viability, in comparison with the effect produced by free BVC. In this way, BVC-loaded PLGA-NS decreased BVC toxicity. The development of BVC formulations in carriers such as nanospheres could offer the possibility of controlling drug delivery in biological systems, prolonging the anesthetic effect and reducing toxicity.