Electrochemical cell designed for in situ integrate microextraction and electroanalysis: Trace-level determination of norfloxacin in aqueous samples
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In this work, a newly designed electrochemical cell was assembled for in situ integrated microextraction and electroanalysis. Ionic liquids (ILs) were used as extractors to perform the microextraction, which enabled the pre-concentration of norfloxacin from tap water samples. The featured device can be used to replace conventional liquid–liquid microextraction, reducing the number of steps involved in the process. In addition, the pre-concentration of target analyte was performed in a single drop, which was directly decanted onto the electrode surface after agitation, allowing for further determination at trace concentration levels. The analytical performance of the proposed device was evaluated and the norfloxacin was determined at the trace-level in tap water samples with suitable accuracy (recovery values were 86–115%).