Environmental geophysical diagnosis of a contaminated area by hydrocarbons in a railway accident in the municipality of Botucatu-SP, Brazil
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The diagnosis of contaminated areas is a mandatory procedure to treatment and remediation of soil and groundwater. Complex contaminants like hydrocarbons undergo physical and chemical changes along the dwell time in the geological environment, with changes in dissolution and spread in unsaturated and saturated soil aquifer system. This research describes the application of geophysical methods integrated with a history of chemical data in a contaminated area by leaked hydrocarborn in a railway accident, in 2005, at rural area in Botucatu (SP, Brazil). The geophysical methods Electrical Resistivity and Induced Polarization were used by 5 parallel lines of electrical resistivity tomography in Schlumberger array, programmed and adjusted from a history of chemical analysis of groundwater. The electrical tomography data allowed the generation of 2D inversion models and visualization of 3D models. The data integrated analysis indicated the advanced state of degradation of hydrocarbons, recognized by high values of high chargeability in relation to the natural pattern of the area, concomitantly to areas of medium resistivity. This pattern may be indicative of the advanced state of degradation of the contaminants in the geological environment, with probable formation of sulphides resulting from the stabilization of the sulphur from the hydrocarbons and the iron present commonly found in tropical soils.