Co-doped p-type ZnO:Al-N thin films grown by RF-Magnetron sputtering at room temperature
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This study reports the structural properties of zinc oxide thin films co-doped with aluminum and nitrogen (ZnO:Al-N) grown by RF magnetron sputtering from an AZO (ZnO with 2 wt% Al2O3) target under nitrogen (N2) atmosphere at room temperature (RT). Nitrogen partial pressures of 0.00, 0.10, 0.25 and 1.00 mTorr were used. The film thickness was around 270 nm. Ultraviolet-Vis-NIR transmittance (T) spectra of the films revealed T values of 80 to 85% in the 400 to 700 nm wavelength range. XRD results indicated that the films had a hexagonal wurtzite structure and were preferentially oriented in the (002) plane. Analyses by EDS indicated that the N atoms tend to be incorporated into the ZnO matrix at the expense of oxygen atoms. The ideal [N]/[Al] was obtained at a N2 partial pressure of 0.25 mTorr, producing a p-type film. For a [N]/[Al] of 1.53, the film also exhibited p-type conduction with an electrical resistivity of 31.92 Ω cm, mobility of 18.65 cm2/V s and carrier density of 1.22 x 1016 cm-3. The low carrier density is attributed to the energetically favorable formation of inactive nitrogen phases instead of acceptor-receiver-acceptor complexes, even at the ideal [N]/[Al].
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