Physicochemical characterization of the pulp oil of bacuri Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae)
Caracterización fisicoquímica del aceite de pulpa de bacuri Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae)
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The aim of the study was to characterize the pulp oil of bacuri Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae) according to official analytical methods. Total phenolic and carotenoids contents were evaluated by spectrophotometry, and tocopherols composition by high-performance liquid chromatography. The fatty acid profile was obtained through gas chromatography from samples transesterified with potassium hydroxide in methanol and n-hexane. According to the proximate composition, bacuri pulp contained 41.5 % carbohydrates and 39.2 % lipids. Regarding its physicochemical properties, the oil showed a free fatty acids content of 0.7 %, a peroxide value of 1.4 meq/kg, a refractive index of 1.463, an iodine number of 84.3 g I2/100 g, a saponification number of 193.5 mg KOH/g, an unsaponifiable matter of 0.5 %, and 48.7 h of oxidative stability. Total phenolic, carotenoids, and tocopherols contents recorded values of 2.4 mg GAE/g, 243.0 µg/g, and 86.8 mg/kg, respectively. The bacuri oil showed a fatty acid composition similar to olive oil and a high percentage of unsaturation, finding 67.3 % of monounsaturated acids, and 11.3 % of polyunsaturated acids. The main fatty acids were oleic (67.3 %), palmitic (13.3 %), and linoleic (10.5 %). Due to its physicochemical characteristics, bacuri oil has a great potential to be used in food preparations, such as salad oil or in margarine formulation.