A Specialized Long-Term Distribution System Expansion Planning Method with the Integration of Distributed Energy Resources
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The electrical distribution system (EDS) has undergone major changes in the last decade due to the increasing integration of distributed generation (DG), particularly renewable energy DG. Since renewable energy resources have uncertain generation, energy storage systems (ESSs) in the EDS can reduce the impact of those uncertainties. Besides, electric vehicles (EVs) have been increasing in recent years leveraged by environmental concerns, bringing new challenges to the operation and planning of the EDS. In this con, new approaches for the distribution system expansion planning (DSEP) problem should consider the distributed energy resources (DG units, ESSs, and EVs) and address environmental impacts. This paper proposes a mixed-integer linear programming model for the DSEP problem considering DG units, ESSs, and EV charging stations, thus incorporating the environmental impact and uncertainties associated with demand (conventional and EVs) and renewable generation. In contrast to other approaches, the proposed model includes the simultaneous optimization of investments in substations, circuits, and distributed energy resources, including environmental aspects (CO2 emissions). The optimization method was developed in the modeling language AMPL and solved via CPLEX. Tests carried out with a 24-node system illustrate its effectiveness as a valuable tool that can assist EDS planners in the integration of distributed energy resources.
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