Coloring ionic trapping states in WO3 and Nb2O5 electrochromic materials
Data de publicação2008-07-01
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Complex electro-optical analysis is a very useful approach to separate different kinetic processes that occur during ionic insertion reactions in electrochromic oxide materials. In this paper, we use this type of combined technique to investigate ionic and optical changes in different oxide host systems, i.e., in two oxide hosts, specifically WO3 and Nb2O5. A comparison of their electro-optical responses revealed the presence of an ionic trapping contribution to the kinetics of the coloring sites, which was named here as coloring ionic trapping state. As expected, this coloring trapping process is slower in Nb2O5 since the reduction potential of Nb2O5 is more negative (more energy is needed for a higher degree of coloration). A phenomenological solid-state model that encompasses homogeneous charge transfer and valence trapping was proposed to explain the coloring ionic trapping process. Basically the model is able to explain how ionic dynamics at low frequency region, i.e., the slower kinetic step, controls the coloring kinetics, i.e., how it is capable to regulate the coloring rates.Optical transient analyses demonstrated the possibility of the presence of more than one coloring ionic trap, indicating the complexity of the processes involved in coloration phenomenon in metal oxide host systems. (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd.