Chemical characterization of a dye processing plant effluent - Identification of the mutagenic components
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This work shows the chemical characterization of a dye processing plant effluent that was contributing to the mutagenicity previously detected in the Cristais river, São Paulo, Brazil, that had an impact on the quality of the related drinking water. The mutagenic dyes Disperse Blue 373, Disperse Orange 37 and Disperse Violet 93, components of a Black Dye Commercial Product (BDCP) frequently used by the facility, were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The blue and orange dyes were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/DAD) in a raw and treated effluent samples and their contribution to the mutagenicity was calculated based on the potency of each dye for the Salmonella YG1041. In the presence of S9 the Disperse Blue 373 accounted for 2.3% of the mutagenic activity of the raw and 71.5% of the treated effluent. In the absence of S9 the Disperse Blue 373 accounted for 1.3% of the mutagenic activity of the raw and 1.5% of the treated effluent. For the Disperse Orange 37, in the presence of S9, it contributed for 0.5% of the mutagenicity of the raw and 6% of the treated effluent. In the absence of S9; 11.5% and 4.4% of the raw and treated effluent mutagenicity, respectively. The contribution of the Disperse Violet 93 was not evaluated because this compound could not be quantified by HPLC/DAD. Mutagenic and/or carcinogenic aromatic amines were also preliminary detected using gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry in both raw and treated and are probably accounting for part of the observed mutagenicity. The effluent treatment applied by the industry does not seem to remove completely the multagenic compounds. The Salmomella/microsome assay coupled with TLC analysis seems to be an important tool to monitor the efficiency of azo dye processing plant effluent treatments. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.