Expression of heat shock protein in broiler embryo tissues after acute cold or heat stress
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This study evaluated the expression of heat shock protein 70 kD (hsp70) in broiler chicken embryos subjected to cold (Experiment 1) or high incubation temperature (Experiment 11). In each experiment, fertile eggs were distributed in three incubators kept at 37.8degreesC. At day 13 (D13), D16, and D19 of incubation, the embryos were subjected to acute cold (32degreesC) or heat (40degreesC) for 4-6 hr. Immediately after cold or heat exposure, samples from the liver, heart, breast muscle, brain, and lungs of 40 embryos were taken per age and treatment (control or stressed embryos), A tissue pool from 10 embryos was used as 1 replication. The levels of hsp70 in each tissue sample was quantified by Western blot analysis. The data were analyzed in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with four replications. hsp70 was detected in all embryo tissues, and the brain contained 2- to 5-times more hsp70 protein compared to the other tissues in either cold or heat stressed embryos. hsp70 increases were observed in the heart and breast muscle of cold stressed embryos at D16 and D19, respectively. Heat stressed embryos showed an increase of hsp70 in the heart at D13 and D19, and in the lung at D19 of incubation. Younger embryos had higher hsp70 synthesis than older embryos, irrespective of the type of thermal stressor. The results indicate that the expression of hsp70 in broiler chicken embryos is affected by cold and heat distress, and is tissue- and age-dependent. (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.