On discrete symmetries of the multi-boson KP hierarchies
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We show that the multi-boson KP hierarchies possess a class of discrete symmetries linking them to discrete Toda systems. These discrete symmetries are generated by the similarity transformation of the corresponding Lax operator. This establishes a canonical nature of the discrete transformations. The spectral equation, which defines both the lattice system and the corresponding Lax operator, plays a key role in determining pertinent symmetry structure. We also introduce the concept of the square root lattice leading to a family of new pseudo-differential operators with covariance under additional Bäcklund transformations.