Spectroscopic study of lanthanide squarate hydrates
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In the present investigation some spectroscopic properties of several lanthanide squarate hydrates are reported. The Raman spectra show the same distinctive Jahn-Teller intensity pattern for non-totally symmetric modes, as previously observed for the free anion. In the case of the terbium salt, the Tb3+ emission is very intense even at room temperature, revealing an efficient excitation via the ligand electronic levels. The Tb3+ dilution in Gd3+ or La3+ hosts increases this excitation efficiency without any appreciable variation in the 5D4 excited-state lifetime. However, the Eu3+ emission is very weak, with excited states located above the 5D2 level (ca. 21 550 cm-1) being completely quenched at room temperature. At lower temperatures higher-lying levels are not so efficiently quenched. The broad band observed in the UV excitation spectra of Eu3+ and Tb3+ is easily assigned to an intra-ligand transition leading to ligand-to-lanthanide ion energy transfer processes. As observed for Tb3+, Eu3+ dilution in Gd3+ or La3+ hosts also increases the relative emission intensity mediated by the ligand, without variation in the 5D0 excited-state lifetime. The Eu3+ 5D0 excitation spectra show vibronic structures that can be interpreted on the basis of the data available from the vibrational spectra. An increase in the vibronic intensities is observed as the lanthanide concentration is increased. © 1994.