Frequency upconversion in Nd3+-doped fluoroindate glass
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We report the observation of frequency upconversion in fluoroindate glasses with the following compositions: (mol%) (39 - x)InF3-20ZnF2-20SrF2-16BaF 2-2GdF3-2NaF-1GaF3-xNdF3 (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 3). The excitation source was a dye laser in resonance with the 4I9/2→(2G5/2, 2G7/2) transition of the Nd3+ ions. The upconverted fluorescence spectra show emissions from ∼ 350 to ∼ 450 nm, corresponding to transitions 4D3/2→4I9/2 ;4D3/2→4I11/2; 2P3/2→ 4I9/2; 4D3/2→4I13/2; 2P3/2→4I11/2; 4D3/2→4I15/2; and 2P3/2 → 4I13/2. The dependence of the fluorescence signals on the laser intensity indicates that two laser photons participate in the process. The temporal behavior of the signal indicates that energy transfer among the Nd3+ ions is the main mechanism which contributes to upconversion at 354 and 382 nm.