Kinetic study of the plastoquinone pool availability correlated with H2O2 release in seawater and antioxidant responses in the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii exposed to single or combined high light, chilling and chemical stresses
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Under biotic/abiotic stresses, the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii reportedly releases massive amounts of H2O2 into the surrounding seawater. As an essential redox signal, the role of chloroplast-originated H2O2 in the orchestration of overall antioxidant responses in algal species has thus been questioned. This work purported to study the kinetic decay profiles of the redox-sensitive plastoquinone pool correlated to H2O2 release in seawater, parameters of oxidative lesions and antioxidant enzyme activities in the red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii under the single or combined effects of high light, low temperature, and sub-lethal doses of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) and 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB), which are inhibitors of the thylakoid electron transport system. Within 24 h, high light and chilling stresses distinctly affected the availability of the PQ pool for photosynthesis, following Gaussian and exponential kinetic profiles, respectively, whereas combined stimuli were mostly reflected in exponential decays. No significant correlation was found in a comparison of the PQ pool levels after 24 h with either catalase (CAT) or ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, although the H2O2 concentration in seawater (R = 0.673), total superoxide dismutase activity (R = 0.689), and particularly indexes of protein (R = 0.869) and lipid oxidation (R = 0.864), were moderately correlated. These data suggest that the release of H2O2 from plastids into seawater possibly impaired efficient and immediate responses of pivotal H2O2-scavenging activities of CAT and APX in the red alga K. alvarezii, culminating in short-term exacerbated levels of protein and lipid oxidation. These facts provided a molecular basis for the recognized limited resistance of the red alga K. alvarezii under unfavorable conditions, especially under chilling stress. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.