Avaliação do potencial antagônico de leveduras, visando biocontrole de deterioração por penicillium expansum
Alternative titleEvaluation of potential antagonistism in yeasts, seeking biocontrol of spoilage by penicillium expansum
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Considerable losses during apple fruit storage occur due to microbiological diseases, mainly caused by Penicillium expansum, which in addition to fruit pulp deterioration produces patulin, a mycotoxin with carcinogenic and teratogenic activity. Biological control of post-harvest disease by antagonist yeasts focused on killer toxins is an appreciable alternative to the chemical fungicides, due to the low possibility of toxic residues demonstrated during fermentative processes. Twenty out of 44 yeasts (16 isolated from fruits, 10 from corn silage and 18 from laboratory anthill), showed antagonism against spores of P. expansum. The assay in solid medium pointed the strongest nutrient competition antagonism by D. hansenii strain C1 (31 mm inhibition diameter), while D. hansenii strain C7 (15 mm) showed higher antibiosis and parasitism pattern. In the following step the extracellular activity was tested performing the assay with culture supernatant in Yeast Medium agar, where C. guilliermondii P3 was more effective against conidia germination (inhibition rate of 58.15%) while P. ohmeri showed better inhibition on micelial growth (66.17%). The antibiosis showed by both yeasts could suggest probable mechanism associated with killer phenomenon, once both strains were killer positive against sensitive reference strains (S. cerevisiae NCYC 1006 and P. kluyveri CAY-15). In order to enhance the production of antifungal substance, these yeasts were cultivated with P. expansum, but the difference between culture supernatant obtained from yeasts cultivated alone and with mould was not significant (P > 0.05). The results demonstrated that the yeasts application constitute a promising tool, enhancing the biological control of P. expansum in post-harvest diseases of apple fruit.