Spermatogenesis of Zaprionus indianus and Zaprionus sepsoides (Diptera, Drosophilidae): Cytochemical, structural and ultrastructural characterization
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Zaprionus indianus is a drosophilid native to the Afrotropical region that has colonized South America and exhibits a wide geographical distribution. In contrast, Z. sepsoides is restricted to certain African regions. The two species differ in the size of their testes, which are larger in Z. indianus than in Z. sepsoides. To better understand the biology and the degree of differentiation of these species, the current study evaluated spermatogenesis in males of different ages by conventional staining techniques and ultrastructural analysis. Spermatogenesis and the ultrastructure of spermatozoa were similar in the two species, and the diploid number was confirmed to be 2n = 12. A greater number of spermatozoa were observed in young Z. indianus (1-3 days old) compared to Z. sepsoides males, which showed a higher frequency of cells at the early stages of spermatogenesis. The head of the sperm was strongly marked by silver staining, lacto-acetic orcein and the Feulgen reaction; the P.A.S. reaction revealed glycogen granules in the testes of both species. Both species presented similar arrangement of microtubules (9+9+2), two mitochondrial derivatives of different size and 64 spermatozoa per bundle. Such similarity within the genus Zaprionus with other species of Drosophila, indicates that these structures are conserved in the family Drosophilidae. The differences observed the number and frequency of sperm cells in the early stages of spermatogenesis, between the young males of Z. indianus and Z. sepsoides, are features that may interfere with reproductive success and be related to the invasive potential of Z. indianus. © 2013, Sociedade Brasileira de Genética. Printed in Brazil.