Oxidative stress monitoring in in vitro and in vivo models

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Lima, Thania Rios Rossi [UNESP]
Sales, Bianca Camargo Penteado [UNESP]
Pereira, Lilian Cristina [UNESP]
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In aerobic organisms, cellular respiration is an essential process that is divided into several steps. The third and last step is called oxidative phosphorylation, which occurs in the mitochondria, specifically in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The mitochondria are considered the cell “powerhouse” because they generate energy through oxidative phosphorylation, which is the main energy source in aerobic organisms. The generated energy is stored in the ATP molecule and is used to maintain various biological processes. Conversely, the mitochondria are also the primary site for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. If ROS are produced beyond the capacity of antioxidant systems to neutralize them, they induce oxidative stress. This condition is harmful for macromolecules and can lead to cell death. Oxidative stress and its consequences can be monitored by many assays that employ in vitro and in vivo models, which will be discussed throughout this chapter.
Cellular culture, Oxidative stress monitoring, ROS, Zebrafish
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Role of Oxidative Stress in Pathophysiology of Diseases, p. 163-178.