Toxicity of antifouling biocides on planktonic and benthic neotropical species

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2023-05-01

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Organotin-based (OTs: TBT and TPT) antifouling paints have been banned worldwide, but recent inputs have been detected in tropical coastal areas. However, there is a lack of studies evaluating the toxicity of both legacy and their substitute antifouling booster biocides (e.g., Irgarol and diuron) on neotropical species. Therefore, the acute toxicity of four antifouling biocides (TBT, TPT, Irgarol, and diuron) was investigated using the marine planktonic organisms Acartia tonsa and Mysidopsis juniae, the estuarine tanaid Monokalliapseudes schubarti (water exposure), and the burrowing amphipod Tiburonella viscana (spiked sediment exposure). Results confirmed the high toxicity of the OTs, especially to planktonic species, being about two orders of magnitude higher than Irgarol and diuron. Toxic effects of antifouling compounds were observed at levels currently found in tropical coastal zones, representing a threat to planktonic and benthic invertebrates. Furthermore, deterministic PNECmarine sediment values suggest that environmental hazards in tropical regions may be higher due to the higher sensitivity of tropical organisms. Since regulations on antifouling biocides are still restricted to a few countries, more ecotoxicological studies are needed to derivate environmental quality standards based on realistic scenarios. The present study brings essential contributions regarding the ecological risks of these substances in tropical and subtropical zones.

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Environmental Science and Pollution Research, v. 30, n. 22, p. 61888-61903, 2023.

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