Influence of δβ-thalassemia or regulatory elements in individuals with increased fetal Hb levels in the São Paulo northwest population

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Carrocini, G. C S [UNESP]
Bonini-Domingos, C. R. [UNESP]

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Fetal hemoglobin (Hb F), formed by two alpha globin chains (α) and two gamma chains (γ) (α2 γ2), has reduced expression in adults, ranging from 0 to 1% of total hemoglobin. Increased levels of Hb F are due to mutations in the β-globin family, which cause hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) and delta-beta thalassemia (δβ-thalassemia).The control of the production takes place by the regulatory region and regions outside the β-globin family, among them 2q16, 6q23, 8q, and Xp22.2.The aims of this study were to determine the presence and frequency of two mutations for δβ-thalassemia, the XmnI polymorphism and β-globin haplotypes in healthy individuals with increased Hb F in the State of São Paulo. We analyzed 60 samples of peripheral blood of healthy adults, without complaints of anemia. The samples were separated into two groups according to Hb F level: group I - 34 samples with Hb F ranging from 2 to 15% and group II - 26 samples with Hb F over 15%. In relation to the polymorphisms examined, we found three heterozygous individuals (5%) for Spanish δβ-thalassemia, belonging to group I, whose Hb F levels were within the normal range.The Sicilian δβ-thalassemia mutation was not found, indicating the need to study other polymorphisms related to the increase of Hb F in adult life.The frequency of XmnI polymorphism was 33.3% and the mean Hb F levels were 15.48 ± 11.69%.The frequency observed in our study for this polymorphic site is higher than that found in the literature for healthy subjects.This polymorphism was more prevalent in individuals with Hb F levels below 15%. For four samples positive for this polymorphism, the Hb F levels were explained by the presence of HPFH and Spanish δβ-thalassemia mutations, so that the presence of the XmnI polymorphic site was not a determinant in the overexpression of γ-globin genes. Regarding β-globin haplotypes, 18 alleles and 27 distinct genotypic patterns were found.The pattern Atp1/Atp2 was the mostfrequent genotype (13.72%).Of the 18 alleles, 13 showed atypical patterns.The results show that the haplotype V was the most frequent (27.45%), followed by atypical Atp2 (13.72%) and Atp1 (11.76%), and that there was a higher correlation with the presence of HPFH and XmnI polymorphism.The high frequency of haplotype V in our samples and high frequency of atypical haplotypes may reflect a high rate of miscegenation in this population, suggesting an ethnic characteristic for the Brazilian population, requiring the evaluation of population genetic markers to corroborate this hypothesis. © FUNPEC-RP.



β-globin haplotypes, δβ-thalassemia, Hb f, Xmni polymorphism, alpha globin, beta globin, gamma globin, hemoglobin F, blood sampling, Brazil, chromosome 2q, chromosome 6q, chromosome 8q, chromosome Xp, delta beta thalassemia, gene, gene frequency, gene mutation, gene overexpression, genetic polymorphism, genotype, haplotype, hemoglobin blood level, heterozygosity, human, population genetics, prevalence, protein expression, protein family, thalassemia, Xmn1 gene

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Genetics and Molecular Research, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1787-1788, 2011.