Magnetic resonance study of the crystallization behavior of InF3-based glasses doped with Cu2+, Mn2+ and Gd3+

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The crystallization of fluoroindate glasses doped with Gd3+, Mn2+ and Cu2+ heat treated at different temperatures, ranging from the glass transition temperature (Tg) to the crystallization temperature (Tc), are investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The EPR spectra indicate that the Cu2+ ions in the glass are located in axially distorted octahedral sites. In the crystallized glass, the g-values agreed with those reported for Ba2ZnF6, which correspond to Cu2+ in a tetragonal compressed F- octahedron and to Cu2+ on interstitial sites with a square-planar F- co-ordination. The EPR spectra of the Mn2+ doped glasses exhibit a sextet structure due to the Mn2+ hyperfine interaction. These spectra suggest a highly ordered environment for the Mn2+ ions (close to octahedral symmetry) in the glass. The EPR spectra of the recrystallized sample exhibit resonances at the same position, suggesting that the Mn2+ ions are located in sites of highly symmetric crystalline field. The increase of the line intensity of the sextet and the decrease of the background line in the thermal treated samples suggest that the Mn2+ ions move to the highly ordered sites which contribute to the sextet structure. The EPR spectra of the Gd3+ doped glasses exhibit the typical U-spectrum of a s-state ion in a low symmetry site in disordered systems. The EPR of the crystallized glasses, in contrast, have shown a strong resonance in g ≈ 2.0, suggesting Gd3+ ions in environment close to cubic symmetry. The 19F NMR spin-lattice relaxation rates were also strongly influenced by the crystallization process that takes over in samples annealed above Tc. For the glass samples (doped or undoped) the 19F magnetization recoveries were found to be adjusted by an exponential function and the spin-lattice relaxation was characterized by a single relaxation time. In contrast, for the samples treated above Tc, the 19F magnetization-recovery becomes non-exponential. A remarkable feature of our results is that the changes in the Cu2+, Mn2+, Gd3+ EPR spectra and NMR relaxation, are always observed for the samples annealed above Tc. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



Electron spin resonance, Fluorides, Glass ceramics, NMR, MAS-NMR and NQR, Nuclear magnetic (and quadrupole) resonance, Nuclear spin relaxation, Rare-earths in glasses, Copper compounds, Doping (additives), Heat treatment, Indium compounds, Magnetic resonance, Paramagnetic resonance, Positive ions, Hyperfine interactions, MAS NMR, NQR, Crystallization

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Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, v. 352, n. 32-35, p. 3414-3422, 2006.